Communications Monitoring Report 2015: Broadcasting sector overview

4.0 Broadcasting sector overview

This display presents several key indicators for the broadcasting sector.  First indicator: revenues: $17.3 billion, an increase of 1.4% over 2013.  Second indicator: BDU earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA): 21%. Third indicator: Radio profit before interest and taxes (PBIT): 19%. Fourth indicator: Television profit before interest and taxes (PBIT): 13%.  Fifth indicator: pie chart shows the television, radio, and BDU revenues as a percentage of total broadcasting revenues in 2014. Television: 38%; Radio: 9%; BDU: 53%; broadcasting revenues: $17.3 billion.

The Canadian broadcasting sector consists of radio and television stations, discretionary services (such as pay, pay per view (PPV), video-on-demand (VOD), and specialty services) and broadcast distribution undertakings (BDU) including cable, satellite and IPTV.

In 2014, Canadian broadcasting sector revenues remained stable at $17.3 billion. This amount accounts for 27% of all Canadian communications revenues. The proportion of broadcasting revenues in the communications sector as a whole has remained relatively unchanged for the last three years.

The radio and conventional television market sectors have seen revenue drops and have experienced weaker profitability growth this year. Radio broadcasters reported $1.6 billion in revenues and PBIT margins of 19%, while television broadcasters reported $6.6 billion in revenues and PBIT margins that are lower than those of radio.

Conventional broadcasters’ revenues are directly tied to economic conditions, as they depend primarily on advertising revenues. Advertisers tend to reduce their budgets amid economic uncertainty. However, this is not the case for discretionary services as they rely predominantly on subscriber revenues. In 2014, approximately 91% of private conventional broadcasters’ revenues came from advertising compared to 30% for discretionary services.

In 2014, five large vertically-integrated companies (BCE, Cogeco, Quebecor, Rogers and Shaw) generated $13.7 billion in broadcasting revenues, and accounted for over 87% total broadcasting revenues. The remaining entities reported combined revenues of $3.6 billion, or 13% of total broadcasting revenues.

This year, companies operating in all five markets of the broadcasting sector (i.e. radio, television, BDU, specialty and VOD, pay and PPV) generated approximately 70% of total Canadian broadcasting revenues. In comparison, companies operating in only one market sector generated 7% of total Canadian broadcasting revenues.

a) Revenues

Table 4.0.1 Broadcasting revenues ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2010-2014 CAGR (%)
Radio AM 307 311 306 295 291 -1.4
Annual growth (%) 0.4 1.2 -1.6 -3.7 -1.3  
FM 1,245 1,302 1,314 1,328 1,323 1.5
Annual growth (%) 3.6 4.6 0.9 1.1 -0.4  
Total 1,552 1,613 1,620 1,623 1,614 1.0
Annual growth (%) 2.9 3.9 0.4 0.2 -0.5  
Conventional television CBC 450 500 508 464 602 7.6
Annual growth (%) 14.8 11.1 1.6 -8.7 29,7  
Private 2,142 2,144 2,038 1,944 1,804 -4.2
Annual growth (%) 8.7 0.1 -5.0 -4.6 -7.2  
Total conventional 2,592 2,644 2,546 2,408 2,406 -1.8
Television Annual growth (%) 9.7 2.0 -3.7 -5.4 -0.1  
Discretionary services 3,475 3,748 3,968 4,091 4,216 5.0
Annual growth (%) 11.3 7.9 5.9 3.1 3.1  
Total 6,067 6,392 6,513 6,499 6,622 2.2
Annual growth (%) 10.6 5.4 1.9 -0.2 1.9  
BDU Cable and IPTV 5,610 5,927 6,068 6,322# 6,509 3.8
Annual growth (%) 9.5 5.7 2.4 4.2 3.0  
DTH/MDS undertakings 2,385 2,532 2,492 2,472 2,414 0.3
Annual growth (%) 8.6 6.2 -1.6 -0.8 -2.4  
Non-reporting BDUs 135# 112# 113# 132# 132 -0.5
Annual growth (%) 9.7 -16.9 1.2 16.6 0.0  
Total 8,130 8,571# 8,674# 8,926# 9,054 2.7
Annual growth (%) 9.3 5.4 1.2 2.9 1.4  
Total  Broadcasting 15,749 16,576 16,808 17,048 17,290 2.4
Annual growth (%) 9.1 5.3 1.4 1.4 1.4  

Source: CRTC data collection

In this table, broadcasting revenues are presented for each type of service and their component parts, for the years 2010 to 2014. It also shows a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for each component. Although some components, such as AM radio and private conventional television, lost revenues over this period, others, such as discretionary services, cable and Internet Protocol television (IPTV) showed gains.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) revenues include advertising and other commercial revenues, but exclude Parliamentary appropriations.

b) Industry characteristics

Table 4.0.2 Percentage of broadcasting revenues generated by companies operating in multiple sectors
Number of sectors in which companies offer service Number of reporting group or entities operating in these sectors Percentage of broadcasting revenues generated in these sectors
2011 2012 2013 2014 2011 2012 2013 2014
5 3 3 3 3 68 66 71 70
4 2 2 1 1 15 15 9 9
3 3 2 2 3 5 5 5 5
2 15 16 19 17 7 8 9 9
1 170 171 164 166 6 7 6 7

Source: CRTC data collection

The broadcasting industry comprises five sectors: radio, television, BDU, specialty/VOD, and pay/PPV television. While most companies operate in only one sector, several operate in all five. This table shows the number of companies that operate in different numbers of sectors, and the percentage of total revenues generated by those companies according to the number of sectors in which they operate. Taken together, the data illustrate that the small number of companies operating in multiple sectors earned about two-thirds of total industry revenues. Affiliated companies are included with their parent company.

Figure 4.0.1 Percent of total broadcasting revenues, by ownership groups

This figure shows the combined percentage of broadcasting revenues of Canada’s five largest groups—BCE, Shaw (including Corus), Rogers, Quebecor, Cogeco,—as well as the next five largest—TELUS, CBC, Saskatchewan Telecommunications, Group Bragg, Newcap Group, and the remaining 180 groups/entities in the industry.

Groups’ revenues include those of their affiliates.

This pie chart shows broadcasting revenues for the top 5 group of companies, the next top 5 group and the remaining companies for 2012, 2013 and 2014. Top 5 companies: 81%, 85% and 83%; Next 5 companies: 11%, 7% and 8%; Remaining companies: 8%, 8% and 9%

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.0.2 Percentage of total commercial radio revenues by broadcaster, 2014

This pie chart shows the percentage of total 2014 revenues achieved by the largest commercial radio broadcasters., Corus: 10%, BCE: 26%, Newcap: 8%, Rogers: 14%, Cogeco: 7% and other broadcasters: 35%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Canada’s five largest commercial radio broadcasters accounted for more than 65% of total industry revenues in 2014.

The “percentage of total revenue” calculation is based on total revenues reported for each service where the broadcaster had greater than 50% direct and indirect voting interest as of 31 August 2014.

Figure 4.0.3 Percentage of commercial television revenues by broadcaster, 2014

This pie chart shows the percentage of total 2014 revenues achieved by the largest OTA conventional, Pay, PPV, VOD and specialty television broadcasters. Quebecor Media: 6%, Shaw: 16%, Corus: 10%, Rogers: 12%, BCE: 35%, CBC: 12%, Remstar: 1% and other broadcasters: 8%.

Source: CRTC data collection

The five largest commercial television broadcasters accounted for 91% of total industry revenues in 2014. In the determination of the top 5 companies, Shaw and Corus were counted as one entity.

The calculation of the percentage of total revenue is based on the total revenues reported for each service where the broadcaster had greater than 50% direct and indirect voting interest as of 31 August 2014.

CBC revenues include advertising, subscriber, and other commercial revenues, and exclude Parliamentary appropriations.

c) Financial performance

Figure 4.0.4 Total broadcasting revenues by type of service and PBIT/EBITDA margins

This line clustered column chart on two axes shows broadcasting revenues, in billions of dollars, by sector for each year between 2010 and 2014. Commercial radio: 1.6, 1.6, 1.6, 1.6 and 1.6; Total commercial television: 5.6, 5.9, 6.0, 6.0 and 6.0; CBC conventional television, excluding government funding: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.6; BDU programming revenues, including non-reporting BDU: 8.1, 8.6, 8.7, 8.9 and 9.1; Combined revenues: 15.7, 16.6, 16.8, 17.0 and 17.3. This chart also sets out the EBITDA margins achieved by BDUs and the PBIT margins achieved by commercial radio and television broadcasting sectors over the same time period: BDU EBITDA margins, based on programming services only: 25.1%, 23.1%, 23.1%, 23.7% and 20.5%; commercial radio PBIT margins: 19.2%, 19.3%, 19.9%, 20.2% and 19.4%; commercial television PBIT margins: 16.0%, 18.5%, 15.7%, 17.9% and 13.0%.

Source: CRTC data collection

The bar graph shows total broadcasting industry revenues and total revenues generated in each of the industry’s subcategories (BDU, commercial television, commercial radio, and the CBC). The line graph shows PBIT margins for radio and television services and EBITDA margins for BDUs, as measures of profitability.

4.1 Radio sector

This display presents several key indicators for the radio sector.  First indicator: revenues: $1.6 billion, a decrease of 0.5% over 2013. Second indicator: Listening: Canadians (12+) listened to 17 hrs of radio each week on average. Third indicator: pie chart shows the percentage of radio revenues as a proportion of all broadcasting revenues in 2014. Radio revenues were 9% of all broadcasting revenues. Total broadcasting revenues were $17.3 billion.

With over 1,100 radio and audio services broadcasting on our airwaves, Canadians have access to a wide variety of musical choices and local, regional and national news platforms. Over 60% of all radio stations in Canada are located in Ontario, Quebec or British Columbia.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), Canada’s public broadcaster, operates over 80 radio stations across Canada in English and in French. Revenues for CBC’s radio unit have steadily declined from $358 million in 2010 to $288 million in 2014.

There are almost 720 private commercial radio stations in Canada. They operate in hundreds of different markets across the country and account for over three-quarters of the total number of radio stations in Canada. And the number continues to grow. Over the last five years, commercial radio stations reported a revenue increase of 4% to $1,614 million and profitability margins of 19%. Over the last five years, revenues reported by AM radio stations have dropped to $291 million in 2014. This can be attributed, in part, to the declining number of AM radio stations in operation. On the other hand, FM stations have reported slight revenue increases over the same period.

Country and contemporary music formats together garnered the largest national listener share. The popularity of these genres on Canadian radio has been steadily increasing over the last few years.

Religious, community, campus and Aboriginal radio stations play an important role in the communities they serve and in the broadcasting sector as a whole. In 2014, these radio stations numbered 175 and reported $53 million in revenues.

Canadians are increasingly using a range of audio content services in addition to over-the-air radio. According to the Media Technology Monitor (MTM), 22% of Canadians (18+) stream AM/FM radio online and 52% of Canadians (18+) stream music videos on YouTube. Satellite radio has also made strides since its introduction into the Canadian marketplace in 2005. This year, MTM estimates that 16% of Canadians (18+) subscribe to satellite radio compared to 9% in 2009.

a) Revenues

Table 4.1.1 Revenues of private commercial radio stations and number of stations reporting financial results, by language of broadcast and frequency band ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Growth (%) 2013-2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
AM radio stations
English-language 272.1 274.9 274.9 264.6 262.0 -1.0 -1.0
French-language 11.2 11.7 6.1 4.7 4.3 -12.0 -21.4
Third-language 24.0 24.4 25.2 25.3 24.6 -1.9 0.7
Total AM 307.3 311.1 306.2 294.6 290.9 -1.3 -1.4
FM radio stations
English-language 987.3 1,035.3 1,042.1 1,053.8 1,042.7 -1.1 1.4
French-language 239.9 246.7 251.8 253.2 259.2 2.4 2.0
Third-language 17.9 19.8 20.2 21.1 21.3 1.3 4.6
Total FM 1,244.7 1,301.6 1,314.1 1,328.0 1,323.3 -0.4 1.5
Total revenues 1,552.4 1,613.8 1,620.3 1,622.7 1,614.2 -0.5 1.0
Number of stations reporting financial results - AM radio stations
English-language 120 115 111 109 109    
French-language 9 7 6 8 6    
Third-language 12 12 12 13 12    
Total AM 141 134 129 129 127    
Number of stations reporting financial results - FM radio stations
English-language 419 435 444 454 466    
French-language 87 89 90 89 90    
Third-language 10 11 12 13 12    
Total FM 516 535 546 556 568    
Number of stations reporting financial results - Total number of reporting stations 657 669 675 685 695    

Source: CRTC data collection

This table show revenue trends for private English-, French-, and Third-language commercial AM and FM radio stations, for the period 2010 and 2014, and includes the annual growth between 2013 and 2014, and over the entire study period.

Network results are included; however, results for pay and specialty audio programming services, as well as for multi-channel subscription radio services, are excluded.

Table 4.1.2 Revenues of commercial radio stations, by radio market size ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
Small markets 553 566 565 579 583 1.3
percent of total % 35.6 35.1 34.9 35.7 36.1  
Medium markets 124 126 124 122 117 -1.4
percent of total % 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.2  
Large markets 353 371 373 373 372 1.3
percent of total % 22.7 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0  
Major markets 522 550 556 549 541 0.9
percent of total % 33.6 34.1 34.3 33.8 33.5  
Total revenues 1,552 1,614 1,620 1,623 1,614 0.9

Source: CRTC data collection

Radio market size is defined as follows: small radio market: population under 250,000; medium radio market: population from 250,000 to 500,000; large radio market: population over 500,000; and major radio markets: Montréal, Toronto and Vancouver. The major and small radio markets each generate almost the same amount of revenues, and together garner approximately 70% of all revenues reported by commercial radio stations.

Table 4.1.3 Revenues of ethnic commercial radio stations, by province ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
British-Columbia 13.6 14.2 15.2 15.3 14.7 2.0
Alberta/Manitoba 3.0 3.4 3.2 3.7 5.0 13.6
Ontario 22.2 23.3 23.7 23.7 23.1 1.0
Québec 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.2 0.8
Total revenues 41.9 44.2 45.4 46.2 46.0 2.4

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows radio revenues reported by ethnic radio stations by province from 2010 to 2014. There were no ethnic commercial stations to report from Saskatchewan, the Atlantic provinces and the North.

Table 4.1.4 Revenues of CBC radio stations, by type of revenue ($ thousands)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2011-2014
Advertising revenues 0 0 0 0 1,074  
Annual growth (%) - - - - -  
Parliamentary appropriations 346,548 327,267 316,508 295,523 277,310 -5.4
Annual growth (%) - -5.6 -3.3 -6.6 -6.2  
Sales/syndication of programs 893 859 952 1,087 1,328 10.4
Annual growth (%) - -3.9 10.9 14.2 22.1  
Other 10,856 8,803 8,432 8,145 7,924 -61.1
Annual growth (%) - -18.9 -4.2 -3.4 -2.7  
Total revenues 358,298 336,928 325,892 304,756 287,636 -5.3
Annual growth (%) - -6.0 -3.3 -6.5 -5.6  
Number of stations 82 78 78 81 82  

Source: CRTC data collection

The data in the following figures present a detailed analysis of the revenues of private commercial English- and French-language AM and FM radio stations. The data on average annual revenues are compared to profit before interest and taxes (PBIT) to indicate the financial health of groups of radio stations. The data for AM and FM stations, as well as the language of broadcast, are segmented to show the variations for each of these criteria. The data in figures 4.1.1 though 4.1.3 include network results, but exclude pay and specialty audio programming services, as well as multi-channel subscription audio services.

Figure 4.1.1 Revenues – Private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues, in millions of dollars, along with the number of undertakings reporting, of Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014 for AM, FM, and AM and FM combined. The second axis depicts percentage of FM in relation to total revenues or undertakings. AM radio stations’ revenues: 307, 311, 306, 295 and 291; Number of AM undertakings reporting: 141, 134, 129, 129 and 127; FM radio stations revenues: 1,245, 1,302, 1,314, 1,328 and 1,323; Number of FM undertakings reporting:  516, 535, 546, 556 and 568; Total radio AM and FM stations revenues: 1,552, 1,614, 1,620 1,623, and 1,614; Number of AM and FM undertakings reporting: 657, 669, 675, 685 and 695. The second axis depicts FM revenues as a percentage of total revenues: 80%, 80%, 81%, 82% and 82% and FM undertakings as a percentage of total undertakings: 79%, 80%, 81%, 81% and 82%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Although AM radio revenues have decreased, revenues derived from FM stations have remained stable.

Figure 4.1.2 Revenues – English-language private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues, in millions of dollars, along with the number of undertakings reporting, of English-language Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014 for AM, FM, and AM and FM combined. The second axis depicts percentage of FM in relation to total revenues or undertakings. AM radio stations revenues: 272, 275, 275, 265 and 262; Number of AM undertakings reporting: 120, 115, 111, 109 and 109; FM radio stations revenues:  987, 1,035, 1,042, 1,054 and 1,043; Number of FM undertakings reporting: 419, 435, 444, 454 and 466; Total radio AM and FM stations revenues: 1,259,1,310, 1,317, 1,318 and 1,304; Number of AM and FM undertakings reporting: 539, 550, 555, 563 and 575. The second axis depicts FM revenues as a percentage of total revenues: 78%, 79%, 79%, 80% and 80%; and FM undertakings as a percentage of total undertakings: 78%, 79%, 80%, 81% and 81%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.1.3 Revenues – French-language private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues, in millions of dollars, along with the number of undertakings reporting, of French-language Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014 for AM, FM, and AM and FM combined. The second axis depicts percentage of FM in relation to total revenues or undertakings. AM radio stations revenues: 11, 12, 6, 5 and 4; number of AM undertakings reporting: 9, 7, 6, 8 and 6; FM radio stations revenues: 240, 258, 252, 253 and 259; Number of FM undertakings reporting: 87, 89, 90, 89 and 90; Total radio AM and FM stations revenues: 251, 270, 258, 258 and 263; Number of AM and FM undertakings reporting: 96, 96, 96, 97 and 96. The second axis depicts FM revenues as a percentage of total revenues: 96%, 96%, 98% 98% and 99%; FM undertakings as a percentage of total undertakings: 91%, 93%, 94%, 92% and 94%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.1.4 Revenues – Ethnic private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues, in millions of dollars, along with the number of undertakings reporting, of Canadian ethnic private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014 for AM, FM, and AM and FM combined. The second axis depicts percentage of FM in relation to total revenues or undertakings. AM radio stations revenues: 24, 24, 25, 25 and 25; number of AM undertakings reporting: 12, 12, 12, 12 and 12; FM radio stations revenues: 18, 20, 21, 21 and 21; Number of FM undertakings reporting: 10, 11, 12, 13 and 12; Total radio AM and FM stations revenues: 39, 44, 45, 46 and 46; Number of AM and FM undertakings reporting: 22, 23, 24, 25 and 24. The second axis depicts FM revenues as a percentage of total revenues: 46%, 46%, 47% 46% and 46%; FM undertakings as a percentage of total undertakings: 46%, 48%, 50%, 52% and 50%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Revenues from private commercial radio stations operating in the context of the Ethnic Broadcasting Policy trended upwards from 2010 and 2013, but slightly declining in 2014. The fluctuations in revenue figures coincide with the number of stations reporting every year.

Table 4.1.5 Revenues for Type B Native, community, and campus radio stations ($ thousands)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Native Type B radio stations
Number of stations reporting 31 32 33 34 24
Advertising 5,825 5,593 5,397 4,429 3,996
Other 11,525 12,314 10,772 10,859 7,766
Total revenues 17,349 17,907 16,168 15,289 11,762
Other as a percent of total revenues (%) 66.4 68.8 66.6 71.0 66.0
PBIT margin (%) 9.7 0.4 -4.7 -16.1 6.3
Community radio stations
Number of stations reporting 97 106 108 112 105
Advertising 13,871 15,272 15,518 15,257 14,899
Other 13,443 14,883 15,017 17,156 16,276
Total revenues 27,314 30,155 30,535 32,412 31,174
Other as a percent of total revenues (%) 49.2 49.4 49.2 52.9 52.2
PBIT margin (%) 8.1 10.6 3.9 7.6 6.4
Campus radio stations
Number of stations reporting 44 48 49 46 46
Advertising 1,196 1,082 1,007 874 1,311
Other 6,907 7,401 7,809 8,290 8,391
Total revenues 8,103 8,483 8,816 9,165 9,702
Other as a percent of total revenues (%) 85.2 87.2 88.6 90.5 86.5
PBIT margin (%) 10.6 20.7 10.9 8.6 7.4

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows the number of stations reporting revenues and PBIT margins (PBIT divided by total revenues) for radio stations operating in the context of the Native Broadcasting Policy, as well as community and campus stations from 2010 to 2014.

For all three types of radio stations, “other revenues” include fundraising and other sources. For Native Type B radio stations only, “other revenues” also include government and band council grants and contributions.

b) Financial performance

Note: The data presented in figures 4.1.5 through 4.1.12 include network results, but exclude results for pay and specialty audio programming services, as well as for multi-channel subscription audio services.

Figure 4.1.5 Average per-station annual revenues and PBIT – Private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the average annual revenue and PBIT per station, in millions of dollars, of Canadian private commercial radio for each year from 2010 to 2014. Average annual revenues per station:  AM stations: 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.3 and 2.3; FM stations: 2.4, 2.4, 2.4, 2.4 and 2.4; AM and FM combined:  2.4, 2.4, 2.4, 2.4 and 2.4.  Average PBIT per station: AM stations:  0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3; FM stations: 0.6, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.5; AM and FM combined: 0.5, 0.4, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.5.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.1.6 PBIT and PBIT margins – Private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total PBIT, in millions of dollars, of Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis represents the associated PBIT margin in percent. PBIT AM radio stations: 30, 32, 33, 25 and 13, and AM PBIT margin: 9.8%, 10.3%, 10.7%, 8.4% and 4.5%. PBIT FM radio stations: 269, 311, 321, 303 and 286; and FM PBIT margin: 21.6%, 23.9%, 24.4%, 22.8% and 21.6%. PBIT for Total AM and FM radio stations: 299, 311, 321, 328, and 299 and AM and FM PBIT margin: 19.3%, 19.3%, 19.8%, 20.2% and 18.5%.

Source: CRTC data collection

There was an overall increase in the PBIT and PBIT margins for all radio stations from 2010 to 2013, but a slight decrease in 2014. Profitability margins for AM radio stations continue to decline.

Figure 4.1.7 Average annual revenues and PBIT per station – English-language private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the AM, FM, and AM and FM combined revenues per station with revenues, in millions of dollars, of English-language Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis depicts PBIT for AM, FM and AM and FM combined per station. AM radio stations revenues per station: 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.4 and 2.4; FM radio stations revenues per station: 2.4, 2.4, 2.3, 2.3 and 2.2. Total radio AM and FM revenues per station: 2.3, 2.4, 2.4, 2.3 and 2.3. The second axis depicts the PBIT information in millions of dollars. PBIT per station for AM: 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1. PBIT per station for FM: 0.5, 0.6, 0.6, 0.6 and 0.5. PBIT per station for AM and FM: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.4.

Source: CRTC data collection

Average annual per-station revenues for both AM and FM English-language private commercial radio stations have decreased in 2014. PBIT margins for AM station continue to decline.

Figure 4.1.8 PBIT and PBIT margins – English-language private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total PBIT, in millions of dollars, of English-language Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis represents the associated PBIT margin in percent. PBIT AM radio stations: 31, 31, 30, 22 and 9; and AM PBIT margin: 11.3%, 11.2%, 11.0%, 8.3% and 3.4%. PBIT FM radio stations: 222, 239, 246, 263 and 239; and FM PBIT margin: 22.5%, 23.1%, 23.6%, 25.0% and 22.9%.  Total AM and FM radio stations: 253, 270, 276, 285 and 248; and AM and FM PBIT margin: 20.1%, 20.6%, 20.9%, 21.7% and 19.0%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.1.9 Average annual revenues and PBIT per station – French-language private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the AM, FM, and AM and FM combined revenues per station with revenues, in millions of dollars, of French-language Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis depicts PBIT for AM, FM and AM and FM combined per station. AM radio stations revenues per station: 1.2, 1.7, 1.0, 0.6 and 0.7; FM radio stations revenues per station: 2.8, 2.8, 2.8, 2.8 and 2.9. Total radio AM and FM revenues per station: 2.6, 2.7, 2.7, 2.7 and 2.7. The second axis depicts the PBIT information in millions of dollars. PBIT per station for AM: -0.2, -0.0, 0.0, -0.0 and 0.1. PBIT per station for FM:  0.5, 0.4, 0.4, 0.4 and 0.5. PBIT per station for AM and FM: 0.4, 0.4, 0.4, 0.4 and 0.5.

Source: CRTC data collection

Average annual per-station revenues for French-language private commercial radio stations remained constant from 2010 to 2014. This was largely due to the strength of revenues from FM stations. Revenues from French-language AM radio stations have fluctuated considerably.

Figure 4.1.10 PBIT and PBIT margins – French-language private commercial
radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total PBIT, in millions of dollars, of French-language Canadian private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis represents the associated PBIT margin in percent. PBIT AM radio stations: -1.7, -0.3, 0.2,   -0.2 and 0.5; AM PBIT margin: -15.2%, -2.6%, 3.3%, -4.1% and 11.6%. PBIT FM radio stations: 43.7, 37.1, 39.4, 37.3 and 43.6; FM PBIT margin: 18.2%, 15.0%, 15.7%, 14.7% and 16.8%.  Total AM and FM radio stations: 42.0, 36.8, 39.6, 37.2 and 44.1; AM and FM PBIT margin:  16.7%, 14.2%, 15.3%, 14.4% and 16.7%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.1.11 Average per-station annual revenues and PBIT – Ethnic private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the AM, FM, and AM and FM combined revenues per station with revenues, in millions of dollars, of Ethnic private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis depicts PBIT for AM, FM and AM and FM combined per station. AM radio stations revenues per station: 2.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1 and 2.1; FM radio stations revenues per station: 1.8, 1.8, 1.7, 1.6 and 1.8. Total radio AM and FM revenues per station: 1.9, 1.9, 1.9, 1.8 and 1.9. The second axis depicts the PBIT information in millions of dollars. PBIT per station for AM: 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3. PBIT per station for FM: 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.3. PBIT per station for AM and FM: 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2 and 0.3.

Source: CRTC data collection

Average annual revenues of private ethnic commercial radio stations fluctuated around the $2-million mark in over the last five years. From 2010 to 2014, AM radio stations outperformed FM radio stations in terms of revenues.

Figure 4.1.12 PBIT and PBIT margin – Ethnic private commercial radio stations

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total PBIT, in millions of dollars, of Ethnic private commercial radio stations from 2010 to 2014. The second axis represents the associated PBIT margin in percent. PBIT AM radio stations: 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, 3.0 and 3.7; and AM PBIT margin: 5.1%, 6.2%, 8.2%, 12.0% and 15.0%.  PBIT FM radio stations: 2.8, 3.1, 3.4, 2.4 and 3.1; FM PBIT margin: 15.6%, 15.6%, 16.8%, 11.3% and 14.6%.  Total AM and FM radio stations: 4.0, 4.6, 5.5, 5.5 and 6.8; and AM and FM PBIT margin: 9.6%, 10.4%, 12.1%, 11.9% and 14.8%.

Source: CRTC data collection

PBITs and PBIT margins for private ethnic commercial AM radio stations increased every year.

c) Availability of radio and audio services

Table 4.1.6 Number and type of radio and audio services authorized to broadcast in Canada, by language of broadcast
Over-the-air radio services English-language French-
language
Third-
language
All languages
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
CBC Radio One / ICI Radio-Canada Première 38 39 21 21 0 0 59 60
CBC Radio 2 / ICI Musique 14 14 14 14 0 0 28 28
CBC Radio network licences 2 2 2 2 0 0 4 4
Private commercial
AM stations 110 107 9 9 13 12 132 128
FM stations 470 482 92 92 17 16 579 590
AM and FM network licences 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Religious (music and spoken word) 49 39 25 5 1 1 75 45
Community
Community 53 51 65 65 3 1 121 117
Developmental 4 6 1 1 0 0 5 7
Campus
Community-based 36 42 6 6 0 0 42 48
Instructional 8 8 0 0 0 0 8 8
Aboriginal stations 45 41 5 5 4 3 54 49
Other (tourist/traffic, etc.) 50 9 3 1 0 0 53 10
Total number of over-the-air Canadian radio services 879 840 244 222 38 33 1,161 1,095
Multi-channel subscription radio services and audio services delivered by BDUs
Satellite subscription radio service 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2
Specialty audio (commercial / non-profit, regional/national) 4 4 0 0 5 5 9 9
Pay audio 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 1
Total number of Canadian radio and audio services 885 846 244 222 45 39 1,174 1,107

Source: CRTC internal database

This table shows the number of radio services approved by the Commission. Not all are necessarily in operation. “Over-the-air radio services” exclude radiocommunication distribution undertakings, rebroadcasters, and radio services exempt from licensing requirements. These figures are as of 31 December 2014.

Recently issued exemption orders for low-power radio stations that provide tourist information or programming from houses of worship have had an impact on this year’s data and have reduced total amounts. For more information relating to these exemption orders, see, respectively, Exemption order for low-power radio stations that provide tourist information, Broadcasting Order CRTC 2013-620, 21 November 2013, and Exemption order for low-power radio stations that provide programming from houses of worship, Broadcasting Order CRTC 2013-621, 21 November 2013.

Table 4.1.7 Number of public/community-based and private radio services authorized to broadcast over-the-air, by province and language of broadcast, 2014
Province/territory English-language French-language Third-language Total
Public/ community Private Public/ community Private Public/ community Private Public/ community Private
British Columbia 35 111 3 0 0 6 38 117
Alberta 8 115 4 0 0 3 12 118
Saskatchewan 8 51 2 0 0 1 10 52
Manitoba 7 39 3 0 0 1 10 40
Ontario 51 237 14 5 1 13 66 255
Quebec 10 17 58 102 0 7 68 126
New Brunswick 7 32 13 4 0 0 20 36
Nova Scotia 13 36 6 0 0 0 19 36
Prince Edward Island 1 6 1 0 0 0 2 6
Newfoundland and Labrador 12 18 1 0 0 0 13 18
The North 8 7 2 0 0 0 10 7
Canada 160 669 107 111 1 31 268 811

Source: CRTC internal database

Non-commercial, tourist information and emergency radio services, as well as rebroadcasters are excluded. Third-language includes native tongue. This table shows the number of radio services approved by the Commission. All are not necessarily in operation.

Figure 4.1.13 Types of radio and audio services authorized to broadcast in Canada, as a percentage of all such services, 2014

This pie chart with a 3D visual effect shows the percentage representation of the types of radio and audio services in relation to the total: Private commercial: 65%; Community: 11%; CBC/SRC: 8%; Religious: 4%; Aboriginal: 4%, Campus: 5%, Other: 1% and Satellite, Multi-Channel and audio via BDUs: 1%.

Source: CRTC data collection

In 2014, private commercial radio stations accounted for over three-quarters of the total number of stations licensed for broadcast in Canada. Other services, such as community radio stations are less represented.

Table 4.1.8 Number of new over-the-air radio stations licensed
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Number of new over-the-air radio stations approved 16 30 28 25 29 128
Number of stations approved by language English-language 16 27 26 20 24 113
French-language 0 2 1 5 2 10
Third-language 0 1 1 0 3 5
Number of stations approved by licence category Commercial 11 11 18 12 20 72
Community 2 9 5 7 6 29
Campus - - - 0 1 1
Native 1 7 3 0 2 13
Other 2 3 2 6 0 13
Number of stations approved by type Stand-alone digital - - - 0 0 0
Digital radio - - - 0 0 0
AM frequency - 2 - 0 2 4
FM frequency 16 28 28 25 27 124
AM to FM conversions(included in FM) 4 1 2 5 0 12
Number of stations approved by process Competitive 1 1 7 0 5 14
Non-competitive 15 29 21 25 24 114

Source: CRTC decisions issued from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014

The issuance of licences for new radio stations can be an indicator of the health of the radio industry. This table shows the number of stations licensed by language, licence category, type of service and process used in granting the licence.

The following are excluded: radiocommunication distribution undertakings, rebroadcasters, pay audio services, specialty audio services, and multi-channel subscription services. The “Other” licence category includes not-for-profit stations, such as those operated in English and in French by the CBC, and Environment Canada.

Figure 4.1.14 Percentage of Canadians accessing online streamed audio services in the past month, by language group

This clustered bar chart compares the percentage of Anglophones and Francophones as well as the percentage of all Canadians who reported using following streamed audio: stream music videos on YouTube: 53% (Anglophones), 49% (Francophones), 52% (Nationally); Stream personalized online music service: 19%, 13%, 18%; Stream AM/FM radio: 23%, 19%, 22%; Podcast listener: 22%, 14%, 21%.

Source: MTM, 2014 (respondents: Canadians aged 18+)

Figure 4.1.15 Satellite radio subscriptions, by language group

This clustered column chart shows the percentage of Canadians subscribing to satellite radio from 2009 to 2014 as follows: 2009: 11% (Anglophones), 4% (Francophones), 9% (Nationally);  2010: 13%, 6%, 11%; 2011: 15%, 7%, 13%; 2012: 16%, 7%, 14%, 2013: 17%, 7%,15% and 2014: 19%, 8%, 16%.

Source: MTM, 2009-2014 (respondents: Canadians aged 18+)

d) Audience measurement

Why measure audiences?

Audience measurement data is important not only to industry stakeholders, who use the data to help sell air time to advertisers, but also to the CRTC, which uses the data to assess the effectiveness of its policies by understanding the reach of programming across the country and across various demographics.

In this subsection, please note that:

  • Audience measurement data is compiled by Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) through the use of portable people meter (electronic data) and diary surveys (written logs). National figures are based on both datasets.
  • PPM data includes only PPM meter service stations reported by Numeris on an individual basis in designated PPM markets. All remaining stations, including diary spill stations, are included in the diary data.
  • Radio seasons used by Numeris were:
    • 2014 PPM weeks 1-13 (1 September to 30 November, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 2 a.m. to 2 a.m. (Total Canada), and Fall 2014 Radio Diary Survey Data
      (1 September to 26 October, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 5 a.m. to
      1 a.m. (Total Diary Canada);
    • 2013 PPM weeks 1-13 (26 August to 24 November, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 2 a.m. to 2 a.m. (Total Canada), and Fall 2013 Radio Diary Survey Data
      (2 September to 27 October, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 5 a.m. to
      1 a.m. (Total Diary Canada);
    • 2012 PPM weeks 1-13 (27 August to 25 November, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 2 a.m. to 2 a.m. (Total Canada), and Fall 2012 Radio Diary Survey Data
      (3 September to 28 October, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 5 a.m. to
      1 a.m. (Total Diary Canada);
    • 2011 PPM weeks 1-13 (29 August to 27 November, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 2 a.m. to 2 a.m. (Total Canada), and Fall 2011 Radio Diary Survey Data
      (5 September to 30 October, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 5 a.m. to
      1 a.m. (Total Diary Canada);
    • 2010 PPM weeks 1-13 (30 August to 28 November, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 2 a.m. to 2 a.m. (Total Canada), and Fall 2010 Radio Diary Survey Data
      (6 September to 31 October, inclusive), all persons 12+, Monday to Sunday, 5 a.m. to
      1 a.m. (Total Diary Canada).
Table 4.1.9 Average weekly hours tuned per capita by age group for all Canada
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Diary PPM Diary PPM Diary PPM Diary PPM
All persons 12+ 17.6 17.7 8.3 17.5 7.1 17.0 7.1 16.5 7.0
Annual growth (%) -0.6 - - -1.1 -14.5 -2.9 0 -2.9 -1.4
Teens 12 – 17 7.0 7.3 4.0 6.9 3.7 6.5 3.7 6.0 3.7
Annual growth (%) 3.0 - - -5.5 -7.5 -5.8 0 -7.7 0
18 – 24 11.9 12.5 5.8 12.5 5.0 11.5 4.4 11.4 4.6
Annual growth (%) -1.0 - - 0.0 -13.8 -8.0 -12.0 -0.9 4.5
25 – 34 15.8 16.8 6.5 16.6 5.8 16.0 5.7 15.4 5.8
Annual growth (%) -4.6 - - -1.2 -10.8 -3.6 -1.7 -3.8 1.8
35 – 49 19.1 19.8 8.2 19.3 7.8 18.7 7.4 18.0 7.4
Annual growth (%) -0.4 - - -2.5 -4.9 -3.1 -5.1 -3.7 0
50 – 54 21.0 21.3 9.5 20.9 8.8 21.1 8.5 19.8 7.6
Annual growth (%) 1.6 - - -1.9 -7.4 -1.0 -3.4 -6.2 -10.6
55 – 64 20.8 20.0 9.5 19.9 7.6 19.4 8.2 18.9 8.0
Annual growth (%) 0.4 - - -0.5 -20.0 -2.5 7.9 -2.6 -2.4
65 + 20.7 19.4 12.0 19.1 9.1 18.8 9.3 18.4 9.1
Annual growth (%) -1.1 - - -1.5 -24.2 -1.6 2.2 -2.1 -2.2

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

The average number of hours per week per capita is determined by dividing the total number of hours tuned by the population.

This table shows that for the third consecutive year, all age demographics recorded negative growth rates in diary markets.

Table 4.1.10 Radio tuning share in an average week and average weekly hours tuned by listener for English- and French-language AM and FM stations (Percentage of hours tuned) (%)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Diary PPM Diary PPM Diary PPM Diary PPM
English-language AM 17.4 15.7 21.8 14.7 21.2 14.2 20.9 13.6 22.6
English-language FM 55.3 57.0 55.0 57.5 54.3 58.4 55.4 59.1 56.5
Subtotal 72.6 72.7 76.8 72.2 75.5 72.6 76.2 72.7 79.0
Annual growth 0.0 - - -0.7 -1.7 0.6 1.0 0.0 3.7
French-language AM 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
French-language FM 20.0 20.3 22.8 21.3 24.1 20.9 23.2 21.0 20.6
Subtotal 20.8 20.5 22.9 21.4 24.2 20.9 23.4 21.1 20.7
Annual growth 0.5 - - 4.4 5.7 -2.2 -3.5 1.0 -11.5
Other 6.6 6.9 0.2 6.4 0.3 6.5 0.4 6.2 0.3
Annual growth -1.5 - - -7.2 50.0 1.1 45.1 -4.6 -25.0
Average number of weekly hours per listener 19.4 19.9 9.9 19.6 9.8 19.3 9.7 18.8 9.5
Annual growth -0.5 - - -1.5 -1.0 -1.5 -1.0 -2.6 -2.1
Total average weekly national hours (millions) 515.7 303.8 164.5 303.9 166.5 299.0 167.7 289.0 167.6
Annual growth -1.8 - - 0.0 1.2 -1.6 0.7 -3.3 -0.1

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

This table shows radio tuning by frequency band and by language of broadcast over the past five years.

The “Other” category is mainly over-the-air tuning to U.S. border stations (diary), but also includes tuning to Internet radio that is not attributed to Canadian over-the-air radio stations, multi-channel subscription (satellite radio) services, pay and specialty audio services, over-the-air and video services available on cable, and unknown sources.

The average number of weekly hours per listener is determined by dividing the total number of hours tuned by reach, which is the number of different persons who tune in for at least one quarter hour within a specified time period, as estimated by Numeris.

Table 4.1.11 Tuning achieved by the largest English- and French-language private commercial radio operators in Canada in an average week (Listening hours) (millions)
2012 2013 2014
Diary PPM Diary PPM Diary PPM
English-language radio operators
Astral 18.8 27.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Share 8.6 26.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A
BCE 14.2 12.4 40.5 38.1 34.2 32.4
Share 6.5 11.6 18.6 36.3 16.3 29.3
Pierre-Boivin (BCE in-trust) N/A N/A 5.4 7.6 N/A N/A
Share N/A N/A 2.5 0.1 N/A N/A
Cogeco - - - - - -
Share - - - - - -
Corus 16.1 20.9 21.5 21.0 19.0 18.7
Share 7.4 19.7 9.8 20.0 9.0 16.9
Newcap 19.5 3.2 18.8 2.6 19.2 10.5
Share 8.9 3.0 8.6 2.5 9.1 9.5
Rogers 20.2 21.5 22.5 23.5 21.8 17.3
Share 9.2 20.2 10.3 22.4 10.4 15.6
Total English-language private commercial radio operators 219.3 106.1 218.2 104.8 210.4 110.6
Share 100 100 100 100 100 100
French-language radio operators
Astral 17.3 8.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Share 26.5 26.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A
BCE N/A N/A 19.9 8.6 17.4 6.9
Share N/A N/A 31.7 26.9 28.8 24.1
Cogeco 7.7 21.4 12.6 21.3 12.7 18.7
Share 11.8 65.2 20.1 66.7 20.9 65.4
Total French-language private commercial radio operators 65.2 32.9 62.7 31.9 60.9 28.6
Share 100 100 100 100 100 100
Total 286.8 139.0 281.3 136.7 289.0 139.2

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

This table presents tuning data by large radio ownership groups, by language, for the years 2012 through 2014.

Note that:

Figure 4.1.16 Radio tuning by station type in diary markets, 2014

This pie chart with a 3D visual effect shows the percentage of hours tuned in an average week to over-the-air radio and audio services in diary markets: Private commercial: 74%; CBC/SRC: 16%; United States: 3%; Audio services: 3%; Community and campus: 2%; Other: 1% and Ethnic and Native: 1%.

Sources: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) 2014 and CRTC data collection

This table shows the different types of radio stations tuned by listeners in diary markets in 2014.

The “Audio services” segment includes tuning to multi-channel subscription (satellite radio) services, pay and specialty audio services, over-the-air radio stations, and video services broadcast over cable and the Internet.

Table 4.1.12 Radio tuning shares - English-language radio station formats in diary markets, 2014
Top formats Audience share Number of stations
Today’s Country 17% 100
CBC Radio One 14% 32
Adult Contemporary 11% 102
Hot AC 10% 80
Classic Hits 8% 69
Album-oriented/mainstream Rock 8% 52
News/Talk 7% 40
Mainstream Top 40/CHR 7% 43
Classic Rock 5% 26
CBC Radio Two 3% 17

Other formats rounding to 100 include: Modern Rock (12 stns, 2%), community/campus/tourism (79 stns, 1%, Gold/Oldies (10 stns, 1%), Adult Standards (1 stn, 1%), Alternative Rock (12 stns, 2%), Classical/Fine Arts (3 stns, 1%), Jazz (1 stn, 0%).

Sources: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) Fall 2014 and CRTC data collection

Table 4.1.13 Radio tuning shares - French-language radio station formats in diary markets, 2014
Top formats Audience share Number of stations
Adult Contemporary 27% 41
News/Talk 17% 9
Hot AC 13% 19
Mainstream Top 40/CHR 12% 15
Ici Radio-Canada Première 12% 21
Community 6% 53
Ici Musique 4% 14
Classic Hits 2% 3
Classical/Fine Arts 2% 2
Modern/Alternative Rock 1% 1

Other formats rounding to 100 include: Adult Album Alternative (1stn, 1%), Oldies (1 stn, 1%).

Sources: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) Fall 2014 and CRTC data collection

Among Canadians in diary markets listening to English-language radio stations, over 50% of listening hours went to CBC Radio One, as well as country, adult contemporary, and hot adult contemporary formats. Among French-language radio station listeners, more than a quarter of listening hours went to the adult contemporary format.

Table 4.1.14 Radio tuning shares - English-language radio station formats in PPM markets, 2014
Top formats Audience share Number of stations
News/Talk 17% 11
Adult Contemporary 15% 9
CBC Radio One 12% 5
Mainstream Top 40/CHR 10% 10
Hot AC 9% 4
Mainstream/Modern Rock 8% 9
Classic Rock 7% 5
Classic Hits 7% 7
Country 4% 4
Sports Talk 3% 7

Other formats rounding to 100 are: CBC Radio 2 (6 stns, 3%), Adult Standards (1 stn, 2%), Adult Album Alternative (1 stns, 0.1%, Classical/Fine Arts (1stns, 2%) and Jazz (1 stn, 1%).

Sources: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) 2014 and CRTC data collection

Table 4.1.15 Radio tuning shares - French-language radio station formats in PPM markets, 2014
Top formats Audience share Number of stations
Adult Contemporary 32% 2
News/Talk 30% 2
CHR 16% 2
ICI Radio-Canada Première 13% 4
Classical Music 4% 1
ICI Musique 3% 4

Other format rounding to 100 are: Traffic (1 stn, 0%)

Sources: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) 2014 and CRTC data collection

e) Programming contributions and expenditures

What are tangible benefits and CCD contributions?

In the absence of a competitive licensing process relating to transfers of ownership or control of radio or television services, tangible benefits, which are financial contributions proportionate to the value of the transaction (6% minimum for radio and 10% minimum for television service), are required to be made to the broadcasting system by the purchaser of a licensed radio or television service. They are usually paid over five to seven consecutive broadcast years. These benefits are meant to yield measurable improvements to the broadcasting system generally, as well as to the communities served by the service in question. They are incremental to the normal costs of doing business.

Canadian Content Development (CCD) contributions are financial contributions made by radio broadcasters to support the development and promotion of Canadian musical and spoken word content for broadcast. Most applicants make specific CCD commitments as part of applications for new licences and as tangible benefits at the time of transfer of ownership and control of radio stations. Commercial and ethnic stations are further subject to regulations requiring annual CCD contributions.

These financial contributions serve, among other things, to foster the creation of Canadian content, to help advance the careers of emerging Canadian artists, and to increase the supply of quality Canadian music in a variety of genres.

The CRTC uses a number of approaches to achieve the cultural, social, and economic objectives set out in the Broadcasting Act. One such instrument has been the establishment of various contribution and expenditure regimes.
In the 2013-2014 broadcast year, commercial radio operators contributed 4 cents per revenue dollar to support Canadian content development (CCD). Collectively, they contributed nearly $60 million to the development of Canadian content, an increase of 14% over the previous period. Approximately 65% of the funds were a direct result of the conditions of licence issued to new radio stations and the change in ownership or control of existing ones.

The following chart illustrates the extent to which commercial radio stations supported the development of Canadian content.

Chart 4.1.1 CCD contributions by commercial radio stations, 2013-2014 broadcast year

This chart illustrates the extent to which commercial radio stations supported the development of Canadian content.  Last year, commercial radio stations’ revenues totalled $1,614 million (box A).  Of these revenues, commercial radio stations supported CCD by contributing $20 million in basic annual CCD contributions, $8 million to over-and-above contributions and $31 million in tangible benefits (box B).  These three processes supported various funds and initiatives including $14 million to FACTOR, $16 million to Radio Starmaker, $3.6 million to MUSICATION, $3 million to Community Radio Fund and $23 million to other eligible initiatives (box C).  Ultimately, these contributions helped support Canadian artists, music industry associations, local music initiatives, new spoken word content, music organizations, festivals and conferences, schools and educational institutions (box D).

Commercial radio broadcasters support CCD financially as a result of three regulatory processes:
Basic annual CCD contributions;
Additional contributions over and above the basic CCD contribution (usually related to applications for new licences); and
Contributions made in relation to applications for transfers of ownership or control (tangible benefits).

Figure 4.1.17 CCD contributions by regulatory measure ($ millions)

This stacked bar line chart shows the contributions, in millions of dollars, for CCD by regulatory measure from broadcast year 2009-2010 to broadcast year 2013-2014.  Change in ownership/control: 17, 18, 22, 21 and 31; licence renewals: 7, 8, 9, 15 and 20; new stations:  22, 28, 24, 17 and 8.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.1.18 CCD contributions by regulatory measure (percentage)

This stacked bar line chart shows the contributions, in millions of dollars, for CCD by regulatory measure from broadcast year 2009-2010 to broadcast year 2013-2014.  Change in ownership/control: 17, 18, 22, 21 and 31; licence renewals: 7, 8, 9, 15 and 20; new stations:  22, 28, 24, 17 and 8.

Source: CRTC data collection

In regard to Tables 4.1.22 through 4.1.25:

Table 4.1.16 Summary of annual CCD contributions reported by radio station licensees ($ thousands)
2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 CAGR (%) 2009-10 - 2013-14
FACTOR 9,196 10,755 10,545 12,023 13,982 11.0
Annual growth (%) - 17 -2 14 16  
MUSICACTION 2,220 1,930 2,538 2,426 3,596 12.8
Annual growth (%) - 13 31 -4 48  
CRFC - 346 1,509 1,721 2,922 -
Annual growth (%)   - 337 14 70  
Music Industry Association 3,237 4,360 3,754 4,335 3,168 -0.5
Annual growth (%) - 35 -14 15 -27  
Local music initiatives 10,634 10,833 13,777 10,538 10,731 0.2
Annual growth (%) - 2 27 -24 2  
New spoken word content 608 1,340 943 253 292 -16.7
Annual growth (%) - 121 -30 -73 16  
Audio content initiatives - 135 135 531 968 -
Annual growth (%) - - 0 293 82  
Schools and educational institutions 1,875 2,700 2,383 1,431 1,818 -0.8
Annual growth (%) - 44 -12 -40 27  
Radio Starmaker Fund/Fonds RadioStar 9,244 10,783 11,783 10,984 15,902 14.5
Annual growth (%) - 17 -9 -7 45  
Other eligible CCD initiatives 9,039 10,815 7,713 8,114 6,190 -9.0
Annual growth (%) - 20 -29 5 -24  
Total 46,053 53,996 55,080 52,537 59,567 6.6
Annual growth (%) - 17 2 -5 14  

Source: CRTC data collection

Table 4.1.17 Annual CCD contributions reported by new radio station licensees during the first licence term ($ thousands)
2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 CAGR (%) 2009-10 - 2013-14
FACTOR 2,014 2,719 2,615 2,818 1,753 -3.4
Annual growth (%) 27 35 -4 8 -38  
MUSICACTION 552 791 563 242 1 -79.4
Annual growth (%) -21 43 -29 -57 -100  
Community Radio Fund of Canada - - 165 17 21 -
Annual growth (%) - - - -90 22  
Music Industry Association 2,150 2,493 2,221 2,342 1,732 -5.3
Annual growth (%) - 16 -11 5 -26  
Local music initiatives 7,120 7,485 9,106 5,524 2,754 -21.1
Annual growth (%) - 5 22 -39 -50  
New spoken word content 420 1,139 545 192 155 -22.1
Annual growth (%) - 171 -52 -65 -19  
Audio content initiatives - 0 0 172 585 -
Annual growth (%) - - - - 240.1  
Schools and educational institutions 1,179 2,020 1,553 886 516 -18.7
Annual growth (%) 31 71 -23 -43 -42  
Radio Starmaker Fund/Fonds RadioStar 1,077 1,982 1,038 466 0 -100.0
Annual growth (%) 389 84 -48 -55 -100  
Other eligible CCD initiatives 7,550 9,714 6,195 3,986 352 -53.5
Annual growth (%) 279 29 -36 -36 -91  
Total 22,061 28,342 24,001 16,644 7,868 -22.7
Annual growth (%) 13 28 -15 -31 -53  

Source: CRTC data collection

Table 4.1.18 Annual CCD contributions reported by radio licensees in the context of licence renewals ($ thousands)
2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 CAGR (%) 2009-10 - 2013-14
FACTOR 2,003 2,629 1,971 3,152 4,411 21.8
Annual growth (%) -33 31 -25 60 40  
MUSICACTION 1,324 808 727 1,414 1,935 9.9
Annual growth (%) -5 -39 -10 95 37  
Community Radio Fund of Canada -   617 1,020 1,305 -
Annual growth (%) - - - 65 28  
Music Industry Association 647 823 966 1,607 954 10.2
Annual growth (%) - 27 17 66 -41  
Local music initiatives 1,809 1,947 2,381 3,352 4,938 28.5
Annual growth (%) - 8 22 41 47  
New spoken word content 188 201 398 192 137 -7.5
Annual growth (%) - 7 98 -85 125  
Audio content initiatives 0 0 0 0 0 -
Annual growth (%) - - - - -  
Schools and educational institutions 422 473 614 342 948 22.4
Annual growth (%) 342 -32 12 30 177  
Radio Starmaker Fund/Fonds RadioStar 0 0 246 35 52 -
Annual growth (%) - - - -86 45  
Other eligible CCD initiatives 876 873 1,194 4,026 5,716 59.8
Annual growth (%) -21 0 37 237 42  
Total 7,269 7,754 9,114 15,010 20,396 29.4
Annual growth (%) -34 7 18 65 36  

Source: CRTC data collection

Table 4.1.19 Annual CCD contributions reported by radio licensees in the context of changes in ownership and/or control ($ thousands)
2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 CAGR (%) 2009-10 - 2013-14
FACTOR 5,179 5,407 5,959 6,053 7,818 10.8
Annual growth (%) -9 4 10 2 29  
MUSICACTION 344 331 1,248 770 1,660 48.2
Annual growth (%) -65 -4 277 -38 115  
Community Radio Fund of Canada - 346 727 684 1,596  
Annual growth (%) - - 110 -6 133  
Music Industry Association 440 1,044 567 386 482 2.3
Annual growth (%) - 137 -46 -32 25  
Local music initiatives 1,705 1,401 2,290 1,662 3,038 15.5
Annual growth (%) - -18 63 -27 83  
New spoken word content 0 0 0 0 0  
Annual growth (%) - - - - -  
Audio content initiatives - 135 135 359 383  
Annual growth (%) - - 0 166 7  
Schools and educational institutions 274 207 216 203 354 6.6
Annual growth (%) -28 -24 4 -6 75  
Radio Starmaker Fund/Fonds RadioStar 8,167 8,801 10,499 10,483 15,580 18.0
Annual growth (%) -22 8 19 0 51  
Other eligible CCD initiatives 613 228 324 102 122 -33.2
Annual growth (%) 55 -63 42 -68 20  
Total 16,722 17,900 21,965 20,703 31,303 17.0
Annual growth (%) -18 7 23 -6 51  

Source: CRTC data collection

f) Tangible benefits

Table 4.1.20 Number of radio service transactions, value of those transactions and corresponding tangible benefits for the period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
English-language services 
Transactions 7 9 5 4 9 34
Value ($M) 67.2 316.2 80.4 #756.7 257.7 1,478.9
Benefits ($M) 4.0 19.0 4.8 #52.0 15.5 95.3
French-language services 
Transactions 2 3 2 1 - 8
Value ($M) 97.7 - 1.5 357.7 - 456.9
Benefits ($M) 8.8 - 0.1 25.0 - 33.9

Sources: CRTC decisions and administrative approvals

In regard to the above:

g) Programming of high standards

What is the CBSC?

The Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC) is an independent organization that was created by the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB) to administer the standards established by Canada’s private broadcasters. The CBSC’s membership includes more than 790 private-sector radio and television stations, specialty services, pay services, and networks across Canada, broadcasting in English, French, and third languages.

For more information, visit www.cbsc.ca.

The Broadcasting Act sets out that programming provided by broadcasting distribution undertakings should be of high standard. The CRTC deals with programming complaints relating to public and community radio broadcasters, as well as to non-members of the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC). The CRTC also deals with issues that are outside the parameters of the codes administered by the CBSC. Of the complaints received by the Commission relating to radio, approximately 58% were referred to the CBSC.

Table 4.1.21 Number of radio-related contacts received by the CRTC, by type of issue
Period CRTC – policies/
decisions
Billing Quality of service/
delivery
Terms and conditions Accessibility issues Programming Loudness Other
2013-2014 1,042 4 24 2 0 1,299 10 285
2014-2015 847 3 41 3 0 802 9 227

Source: CRTC correspondence tracking system

Table 4.1.22 Number of radio complaints by subject matter
Type of complaint 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015
Complaints received Referrals to the CBSC Complaints received Referrals to the CBSC Complaints received Referrals to the CBSC Complaints received Referrals to the CBSC Complaints received Referrals to the CBSC
Radio
Abusive comment 35 5 38 3 64 32 32 8 46 16
Adult content 13 5 14 6 9 3 5 1 4 1
Alcohol advertising - - 1 - 4 - 3 - 2 0
Gender portrayal - - 5 4 1 - 2 1 2 1
Offensive comment 220 100 258 95 283 135 702 582 317 203
Offensive language 296 266 22 9 50 14 31 13 41 16
Subscription radio (satellite)
Abusive comment - - - - - - - - - -

Source: CRTC correspondence tracking system

Together, the CRTC and the CBSC receive and address a range of complaints regarding radio and subscription radio services. This table shows the number of complaints received by the CRTC—and referred to the CBSC—regarding various issues across diverse market sectors for the 2010-2011 through 2014-2015.

The CRTC’s correspondence tracking system counts multiple communications from the same client regarding the same complaint as separate units. Consequently, the actual number of complaints received is likely to be slightly lower than the figures indicated.

The category “Abusive comment” includes complaints alleging hatred or contempt incited on air against one of the groups identified in the Television Broadcasting Regulations, 1987 or the Specialty Services Regulations, 1990.

The category “Offensive comment” includes complaints alleging offensive humour, or other comments that do not fall under the “abusive comment” provision in CRTC regulations.

The category “Offensive language” includes complaints alleging offensive language in song lyrics or in spoken word programming.

Table 4.1.23 Radio complaints handled by the CBSC
Radio Subscription radio (satellite) Total
Language of broadcast of the program
English
439 3 442
French
213 0 213
Third language
5 0 5
Other
7 0 7
Total 664 3 667
National origin of the program
Canadian
633 0 633
Foreign
16 0 16
Other
15 3 18
Total 664 3 667

This table shows the number of complaints handled by the CBSC by the language of broadcast for the program targeted by the complaint and by the source of the program. The category “Other” in each case refers to complaints for which there was not enough information for the CBSC to determine either the language of broadcast or the national origin of the program.

Source: CBSC, 2013-2014 annual report

What is the ASC?

Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) is a national, not-for-profit advertising self-regulatory body. The ASC’s Canadian Code of Advertising Standards is regularly updated to ensure it is current and contemporary – keeping pace with consumer and societal expectations.

The ASC responds to complaints by consumers and special interest groups regarding advertising with respect to all media subject to the Canadian Code of Advertising Standards, the principal instrument of advertising self-regulation. In addition, the ASC undertakes pre-clearance functions in five industry categories, which consist of reviewing advertisements based on applicable legislation, regulations, and/or industry codes and guidelines.

Additional information on the ASC can be found at: www.adstandards.com/en/

Table 4.1.24 Complaints handled by the ASC
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Total number of complaints 1,200 1,809 1,310 1,310 1,274
Complaints about radio advertisements 67 85 55 84 64
Percentage of total complaints received 5% 5% 4% 6% 5%

Source: ASC complaint reports

This table shows the number of complaints handled by the ASC relating to advertisements on radio as a percentage of the total number of complaints handled. In 2014, 5% of those complaints related to radio advertisements.

h) Ownership groups

Table 4.1.25 English-language and French-language radio revenues and number of undertakings reporting for the largest commercial radio operators in Canada
Revenues ($ thousands) Number of radio undertakings reporting Share of total revenue (%)
2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014
Largest commercial radio operators
BCE 157,219 474,226 414,116 33 117 107 10 29 26
Pierre-Boivin (BCE in-trust)
N/A 51,518 N/A N/A 10 N/A N/A 3 N/A
Astral 330,488 N/A N/A 84 N/A N/A 20 N/A N/A
Rogers 225,084 224,520 228,485 55 55 55 14 14 14
Corus 181,518 173,909 164,525 37 37 39 11 11 10
Harold R. Steele (Newcap) 116,689 122,365 156,289 60 62 68 7 8 10
Cogeco 106,533 106,613 109,943 13 13 13 7 7 6
Total largest commercial radio operators 1,117,531 1,101,633 1,073,357 282# 284 282 69 68 66
Total commercial radio operators 1,620,316 1,622,658 1,614,158 675 685 695 100 100 100
Largest English-language commercial radio operators
BCE 157,219 365,516 306,288 33 96 86 12 28 23
Pierre-Boivin (BCE in-trust)
N/A 51,518 N/A N/A 10 N/A N/A 4 N/A
Astral 221,826 N/A N/A 63# N/A N/A 17 N/A N/A
Rogers 225,084 224,520 228,485 55 55 55 17 17 18
Corus 181,518 173,909 164,525 37 37 39 14 13 13
Newcap 116,689 122,365 156,289 60 62 68 9 9 12
Total English-language largest commercial radio operators 902,336 886,310 855,587 248# 250 244 69 67 66
Total English-language commercial radio operators 1,316,992 1,318,387 1,304,651 555 594 575 100 100 100
Largest French-language commercial radio operators
BCE N/A 108,710 107,828 N/A 21 21 N/A 42 41
Astral 108,662 N/A N/A 21 N/A N/A 42 N/A N/A
Cogeco N/A N/A N/A 12# 12 12 N/A N/A N/A
Total French-language largest commercial radio operators 108,662 108,710 107,828 33# 33 33 42 42 41
Total French-language commercial radio operators 257,940 257,884 263,513 96 97 96 100 100 100

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows that Canada’s six largest commercial radio operators together accounted for nearly 70% of the commercial radio industry’s revenues between 2012 and 2014. They also accounted for approximately 40% of the total number of radio undertakings in the country.

Note that:

4.2 Television sector

This display presents several key indicators for the television sector.  First indicator: revenues: $6.6 billion, an increase of 2% over 2013. Second indicator: viewing: Canadians (2+) watched 27.4 hrs of television each week on average. Third indicator: pie chart shows percentage of television revenues as a proportion of all broadcasting revenues in 2014.  Television revenues were 38% of all broadcasting revenues. Total broadcasting revenues were $17.3 billion.

Canadians have access to over 600 Canadian and non-Canadian television services. Most still watch television by traditional means, whether it be over-the-air, or via cable or satellite. However, Canadians are also turning to new platforms and devices connected to the Internet for their viewing needs.

According to 2013-14 audience measurement data, Canadians two years of age and older are watching an average of more than 27 hours of television each week. Nevertheless, younger demographics are watching less television. For example, during that period, the 18-34 demographic watched 20.6 hours of television each week, three hours less than five years earlier.

In 2014, the private conventional television sector reported $1.8 billion in revenues, compared to over $4.2 billion for discretionary services. The television industry’s five large ownership groups reported over 90% of all television revenues.

The English-language private conventional television sector includes three major ownership groups: BCE (CTV and CTV Two), with a 49% revenue share; Shaw (Global), with a 27% revenue share; and Rogers (City and OMNI), with a 15% revenue share. The French-language private conventional television sector has two major players: Quebecor (TVA), with a 70% revenue share; and Remstar (V), with a 20% revenue share.

In 2014, the CBC, Canada’s national public broadcaster, reported $1.3 billion in revenues, 55% of which was derived from Parliamentary appropriations.
Collectively, broadcasters contributed nearly $3 billion to Canadian programming expenditures (CPE), 15% of which was spent on programs of national interest (PNI) in 2014. For each dollar earned, television services invested 43 cents in support of Canadian programming during the 2013-2014 broadcast year.

a) Revenues

This subsection presents information on television service revenues, specifically, for conventional television and discretionary services (i.e., pay, PPV, VOD, and specialty services). It does not include information on digital media revenues.

Table 4.2.1 Revenues of television services, by type of service ($ millions)
2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2011-2014
Conventional television services
Private 2,144 2,038 1,944 1,804 -5.6
CBC (English- and French-language) 500 508 464 602 6.4
Subtotal 2,644 2,546 2,408 2,406 -3.1
Discretionary services
Pay, PPV, and VOD 856 837 799 788 -2.7
Specialty 2,892 3,130 3,292 3,428 5.8
Subtotal 3,748 3,968 4,091 4,216 4.0
Total 6,392 6,513 6,499 6,622 1.2

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows the change in television revenues by type of service for the period from 2011 to 2014. CBC parliamentary appropriations are not included.

Figure 4.2.1 Revenues of television services, by type of service ($ millions)

This stacked clustered column chart depicts the total revenues achieved by private conventional television, pay, PPV, VOD and specialty services for each of the 2010 to 2014 broadcast years. Advertising and subscriber revenues are also set out by type of service. Commercial advertising revenues garnered by CBC conventional television stations are also included in this chart. Revenues in millions of dollars from 2010 to 2014: Pay, PPV, VOD and specialty services: 3,475, 3,748, 3,968, 4,091 and 4,216; Private conventional television:  2,142, 2,144, 2,038, 1,944 and 1,804; CBC conventional television: 450, 500, 508, 464 and 602; Total revenues: 6,067, 6,392, 6,514, 6,499 and 6,622. Total advertising revenues in millions of dollars from 2010 to 2014: Pay, PPV, VOD and specialty services: 1,114, 1,234, 1,264, 1,297 and 1,244; Private conventional television: 1,939, 1,949, 1,832, 1,758 and 1,642. CBC conventional television: 339, 370, 373, 331 and 475; Total advertising revenues: 3,392, 3,553, 3,469, 3,387 and 3,361. Total subscriber revenues in millions of dollars from 2010 to 2014: Pay, PPV, VOD and specialty services: 2,261, 2,419, 2,623, 2,725 and 2.885.

Source: CRTC data collection

Total revenues include “other revenues” (i.e., those tied to a broadcasting licence but not stemming from broadcasting activities, for example, fundraisers) and funding from the Local Programming Improvement Fund (LPIF). Advertising revenues include infomercial sales. Revenues shown for the CBC do not include parliamentary appropriations.

Figure 4.2.2 Sources of revenues for private conventional television, 2014

This pie chart depicts the percentage breakdown of the various components that make up the revenue sources for private conventional television services: Syndicated Production: 1%, Other: 7%, Local Time Sales: 19%, National Time Sales: 65%, Network Payments: 6%, LPIF: 1% and Infomercials: 1%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.3 Advertising revenues of conventional television stations owned and operated by the CBC

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues (in millions of dollars), of CBC conventional television from 2010 to 2014 with the second axes representing the percent of total revenue captured by the CBC English-language stations.  CBC/SRC English-language stations: 221, 246, 245, 200 and 333; CBC/SRC French-language stations: 118, 123,127, 131 and 141; CBC and SRC English and French-language station combined total: 339, 370, 373, 331 and 475. The percent of English-language stations of total: 65.2%, 66.5%, 65.7%, 60.4% and 70.1%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.2 Advertising and other revenues of conventional television stations owned and operated by the CBC ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
English-language stations 221 246 245 200 333 10.8
Annual growth (%) 15.1 11.3 -0.3 -18.3 66.5  
French-language stations 118 123 127 131 141 4.6
Annual growth (%) 12.4 4.2 3.1 3.1 7.6  
Advertising total 339 370 373 331 475 8.8
Annual growth (%) 14.1 9.1 0.8 -11.2 43.5  
Other revenues 111 130 135 133 127 3.4
Annual growth (%) 16.8 17.1 3.9 -1.8 -4.5  
Total 450 500 508 464 602 7.6
Annual growth (%) 14.8 11.1 1.6 -8.7 29.7  
Parliamentary appropriation 794 839 861 783 726 -2,2
Annual growth (%) n/a 5.7 2.7 -9.0 -7.3  

Source: CRTC data collection

“Other revenues” include syndication revenues and funding from the Local Programming Improvement Fund (LPIF).

Table 4.2.3 Advertising and other revenues: private conventional television stations, by language of broadcast ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
English-language stations 
Advertising 1,659 1,659 1,540 1,468 1,357 -4.9
Annual growth (%) 9.2 0.0 -7.2 -4.7 -7.6  
% of subtotal 92.0 93.0 92.0 92.7 92.0  
Other 135 129 131 115 118 -3.3
Annual growth (%) 33.1 -4.5 2.0 -11.8 2.6  
% of subtotal 8.0 7.0 8.0 7.3 8.0  
Subtotal 1,794 1,788 1,672 1,583 1,475 -4.8
Annual growth (%) 10.7 -0.3 -6.5 -5.3 -6.8  
French-language stations
Advertising 280 290 291 290 267 -1.2
Annual growth (%) -1.9 3.6 0.3 -0.2 -7.9  
% of subtotal 80.0 81.0 79.0 80.5 81.2  
Other 68 66 75 70 62 -2.3
Annual growth (%) 5.5 -2.2 13.5 -6.1 -11.4  
% of subtotal 20.0 19.0 21.0 19.5 18.8  
Subtotal 348 357 367 361 329 -1.4
Annual growth (%) -0.5 2.5 2.8 -1.7 -8.9  
Total
Advertising 1,939 1,949 1,832 1,758 1,624 -4.3
Annual growth (%) 7.4 0.5 -6.0 -4.0 -7.6  
% of total 91.0 91.0 90.0 90.4 90.0  
Other 202 195 206 186 179 -3.0
Annual growth (%) 22.4 -3.6 5.9 -9.8 -3.8  
% of total 9.0 9.0 10.0 9.6 10.0  
Total 2,142 2,144 2,038 1,944 1,804 -4.2
Annual growth (%) 8.9 0.1 -5.0 -4.6 -7.2  

Source: CRTC data collection

Revenues for English-language private conventional television stations include revenues for ethnic stations since a significant portion of these stations’ revenues was derived from English-language programming. “Other” revenues include funding from the LPIF.

Table 4.2.4 Revenues of discretionary services, by language of broadcast
Services Revenues ($ thousands) PBIT ($ thousands) PBIT margin (%)
2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014
Specialty services - English-language
Category A 1,347,720 1,376,935 1,409,549 489,928 495,284 469,288 36.4 36.0 33.3
Category B 332,660 373,721 375,938 92,747 111,385 112,605 27.9 29.8 29.7
Category C 794,906 850,891 968,017 116,585 218,905 211,780 14.7 25.7 21.9
Subtotal 2,475,285 2,601,547 2,753,504 699,260 825,574 793,673 28.2 31.7 28.8
Specialty services - French-language
Category A 276,529 296,800 268,732 78,789 91,640 74,712 28.5 30.9 27.8
Category B 29,027 37,418 42,983 -4,206 -2,876 -4,533 -14.5 -7.7 -10.5
Category C 265,686 269,679 282,522 25,089 49,354 34,815 9.4 18.3 12.3
Subtotal 571,243 603,897 594,237 99,672 138,118 104,994 17.4 22.9 17.7
Specialty services - Ethnic and third-language
Category A 67,856 60,429 57,392 18,080 15,268 9,935 26.6 25.3 17.3
Category B 15,746 26,151 23,246 2,717 2,841 3,851 17.3 10.9 16.6
Subtotal 83,601 86,580 80,638 20,797 18,109 13,786 24.9 20.9 17.1
Total specialty services
Category A 1,692,105 1,734,163 1,735,672 586,797 602,191 553,935 34.7 34.7 31.9
Category B 377,433 437,291 442,168 91,258 111,350 111,923 24.2 25.5 25.3
Category C 1,060,592 1,120,570 1,250,539 141,674 268,259 246,594 13.4 23.9 19.7
Subtotal 3,130,129 3,292,024 3,428,379 819,729 981,800 912,452 26.2 29.8 26.6
Pay services 457,798 444,785 435,350 101,719 99,297 110,667 22.2 22.3 25.4
PPV services 115,739 99,652 101,326 8,358 10,543 8,336 7.2 10.6 8.2
VOD 263,921 254,532 251,336 -16,597 -8,862 -31,603 -6.3 -3.5 -12.6
Subtotal 837,458 798,969 788,012 93,480 100,978 87,400 11.2 12.6 11.1
Total 3,967,587 4,090,994 4,216,392 913,209 1,082,778 999,852 23.0 26.5 23.7

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.4 Ranking by revenue for individual discretionary services, in descending order, 2014

This line chart ranks by total revenue in descending order each discretionary service for the 2013-2014 broadcast year.  In total, over 225 services are individually depicted on the chart, with the highest grossing service at top left corner and the lowest grossing service at the bottom right corner.

Source: CRTC data collection

This graph shows the total revenues reportedby individual discretionary services, in descending order, in 2014. Each of the top five services reported at least $100 million in revenues, while each of the next five services reported between $80 million to $90 million in revenues. Each of the next 74 ranked services reported total revenues in excess of $10 million; each of the next 83 services reported total revenues in excess of $1 million; and each of the remaining ranked services reported total revenues of less than $1 million. The top three services were sports networks, and the remaining top ten services belonged to a range of different genres.

Figure 4.2.5 Revenues of English-language private conventional television, specialty, and pay, PPV, and VOD services

In this line-column on 2 axes chart, the line part depicts the advertising as percent of total revenues for English-language private conventional television and specialty services for 2010 to 2014. The column part of the chart shows total revenues, in millions of dollars, of Canadian English-language private conventional television, specialty services and pay, PPV, VOD services from 2010 to 2014.  Private conventional television: Total Revenue: 1,793 1,788, 1,672, 1,583 and 1,475; and advertising as percent of total: 92%, 93%, 92%, 93% and 93%. For category A specialty services, total revenues: 1,274, 1,342, 1,348, 1,377 and 1,380; for category B specialty services, total revenues: 261, 295, 333, 374 and 376; for category C specialty services, total revenues: 594, 666, 795, 851 and 997; and advertising revenues for specialty services as percent of total: 43%, 44%, 42%, 41% and 37%.  For Pay, PPV, and VOD services, total revenues:  723, 771, 750, 716 and 704.

Source: CRTC data collection

Ethnic conventional television stations have been included under “private conventional” since a significant portion of their revenues is derived from English-language programming. English-language discretionary services include bilingual services.

Figure 4.2.6 Revenues of French-language private conventional television, specialty, and pay, PPV, and VOD services

In this line-column on 2 axes chart, the line part depicts the advertising as percent of total revenues for French-language private conventional television and Specialty services for 2010 to 2014. The column part of the chart shows total revenues, in millions of dollars, of Canadian French-language private conventional television, specialty services and pay, PPV, VOD services from 2010 to 2014.  Private conventional television: total revenue: 348, 357, 367, 361 and 329 and advertising as percent of total: 79%, 79%, 78%, 80% and 81%. For category A specialty services, total revenues: 255, 275, 277, 297 and 269; for category B specialty services, total revenues: 12, 20, 29, 37 and 43; for category C specialty services, total revenues: 201, 213, 266, 270 and 283; and advertising revenues for specialty services as percent of total: 36%, 37%, 34%, 33% and 34%.  For Pay, PPV, and VOD services, total revenues: 73, 79, 84, 83 and 84.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.7 Revenues of ethnic and third-language specialty and pay services

This line-column on 2 axes chart depicts in the columns the total revenues for specialty services and pay services and in the line portion of the chart, advertising as a percentage of revenues for 2010-2014. Total specialty revenues in millions of dollars: 79, 83, 84, 87 and 81; Advertising as a percentage of specialty revenues: 43%, 42%, 38%, 36% and 36%.Total pay revenues in millions of dollars: 3, 5, 4, 0 and 0.  Advertising revenue as a percentage of pay revenues: 12%, 25%, 25%, 18% and 12%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.8 Collective revenues of top three English-language private conventional television ownership groups

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues, in millions of dollars, of large English-language private conventional television station ownership groups from 2010 to 2014. BCE: 925, 829, 803, 768 and 728; Shaw: 496, 522, 448, 419 and 405; Rogers: 248, 298, 289, 269 and 224; Revenues of top three: 1,669, 1,649, 1,540, 1,457 and 1,358. Total English-language conventional television: 1,794, 1,788, 1,672, 1,583 and 1,475. The dot portion shows the revenues of the top 3 groups as a percent of total: 93%, 92%, 92%, 92% and 92%.

Source: CRTC data collection

This graph shows the revenues of each of the three largest English-language private conventional television ownership groups, as well as the total revenues for all three, in each of the 2010 to 2014 broadcast years. It also shows the total revenues of these three groups as a percentage of the revenues of all groups for the same years. Ethnic private conventional television stations have been included since a significant portion of their revenues is derived from English-language programming.

Each station’s total annual revenues are attributed to the ownership group that was deemed to be its owner as of 31 August of that year. Total revenues include funding from LPIF.

Figure 4.2.9 Collective revenues of top two French-language private conventional
television ownership groups

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the total revenues (in millions of dollars) of large French-language private conventional television by group from 2010 to 2014. The second axes represents a percent. Quebecor (TVA): 252, 260, 257, 249 and 229; Remstar (V): 62, 66, 73, 77 and 67. Revenues of top two: 314, 326, 330, 326 and 296. Total French-language conventional television: 348, 357, 367, 361 and 329.  The dot portion (using second axis) shows top two as a percent of total: 90%, 91%, 90%, 90% and 90%.

Source: CRTC data collection

b) Financial performance

Figure 4.2.10 Aggregrate PBIT margins for private conventional television, pay, PPV, and VOD services, and for Category A, B, and C specialty services

This clustered column chart depicts the aggregate PBIT margins achieved by Canadian private conventional OTA television services, pay, PPV and VOD services and category A, B, C specialty services for each of the 2010 to 2014 broadcast years: private conventional television services: 0% 7%, 1%, 0% and -8%; pay, PPV and VOD services: 17%,16%, 11%, 12% and 11%; category A specialty services:  33%, 33%, 35%, 35% and 32%; category B specialty services: 23%, 24%, 24%, 25% and 25%; category C specialty services: 20%,18%, 13%, 24% and 20%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.11 Aggregate PBIT margins for English-language private conventional television, specialty, pay, PPV, and VOD services

This line column on 2 axes chart depicts the aggregate PBIT margins and number of reporting services (or units) achieved by English-language private conventional television, specialty, pay, PPV, and VOD for 2010 to 2014. For private conventional television services, PBIT margins: -3%, 6%, 1%, -2% and -9%; and reporting services: 74, 73, 73, 75 and 75. For specialty, pay, PPV, and VOD, PBIT margins: 25%, 25%, 24%, 27% and 26%; and reporting services: 141, 150, 155, 157 and 157.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.12 Aggregate PBIT margins for French-language private conventional television, pay, PPV, VOD, and specialty services

This line-column on 2 axes chart depicts the number and aggregate PBIT margins of Canadian French-language private conventional television, specialty, pay, PPV and VOD services from 2010 to 2014. Private conventional television: PBIT Margin: 15%, 11%, 9%, 9% and 0%; number of services or units reporting: 20, 20, 20, 20 and 20; specialty, pay, PPV and VOD services: PBIT Margin: 25%, 25%, 19%, 24% and 20%; number of services reporting: 28, 29, 31, 31 and 32.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.13 Aggregate PBIT margins for ethnic and third-language specialty and pay services

This line-column on 2 axes chart depicts the number of units reporting and PBIT margins of ethnic and third-language specialty and pay services from 2010 to 2014. Specialty and pay services PBIT Margin: 24%, 24%, 24%, 21% and 17%; and Number of services or units reporting: 37, 38, 43, 47 and 41.

Source: CRTC data collection

c) Availability of television and video services

Chart 4.2.1 Programming sources and platforms

This chart depicts various categories and types of programming sources and platforms. At the center are Canadian Viewers. On the first radial axis are different means of accessing media: broadband (wireline/wireless); OTA; BDUs (cable/satellite/IPTV); and physical access. The second radial axis displays types of media that can be accessed by means. For broadband: BitTorrent (legal and illegal); DVD rentals/sales (Amazon); National Film Board; VOD (video on demand); Pay TV programs* (where * includes  authenticated and non-authenticated [e.g. Catch-up/”GO”/TV Anywhere] services); Specialty service programs*; OTA programs*. For OTA: OTA (Cdn & US) is displayed. For BDUs: Specialty services; Pay TV; Pay-per-view; PVRs and VOD. For physical access: Cinemas/Theatres and DVD rentals/sales (video stores, Redbox). VOD is further expanded into: A-VOD (Ad-based VOD e.g. TouTV, Crackle, YouTube); S-VOD (subscription-based VOD e.g. Netflix, LoveFilms); and T-VOD (transactional VOD (e.g. iTunes).

Canadians enjoy multiple sources and means of accessing content, from conventional over-the-air linear broadcasting to digital media provided over the Internet. This chart shows the various categories and types of programming sources and platforms.

For figures and tables with the Media Technology Monitor (MTM) as a source, note that:

Figure 4.2.14 Percentage of Canadians who viewed television and Internet video services and programming in the past month, by language and platform

This clustered bar chart compares the penetration of the following television and Internet video viewing options broken down by Francophones, Anglophones, and nationally for 2014: Sports highlight or event: 18% (Francophones), 29% (Anglophones) and 26% (nationally); Online news or news program: 25%, 32% and 31%;  Full length movie online: 22%, 39% and 36%; Entire 30 or 60 minute TV show online: 29%, 37% and 35%; Internet TV: 42%, 47% and 46%; Watch any type of Youtube video: 63%, 69%, 67%; Any type of internet video: 72%, 80% and 78%; Pay TV: 24%, 24% and 24%; and TV: 99%, 93%, 94%.

Source: MTM 2014 (Respondents: Canadians18+)

Table 4.2.5 Type and number of television services authorized to broadcast in Canada, by language of broadcast
English-language French-language Third-language All languages
2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014
Canadian conventional television services
CBC/SRC (owned and operated) 14 14 13 13 0 0 27 27
Private commercial 64 64 #20 20 6 6 #90 90
Religious 8 8 0 0 0 0 8 8
Educational #4 4 #3 3 0 0 #7 7
Aboriginal 2 1 0 0 1 0 3 1
Canadian discretionary services
Specialty Category A services 42 44 15 16 5 5 62 65
Specialty Category B services 74 77 9 10 44 35 127 122
Specialty Category C services 8 8 5 5 0 0 13 3
Pay television services 7 7 2 2 0 0 9 9
PPV services (DTH and terrestrial) 13 10 1 0 0 0 14 10
VOD services 23 23 1 1 2 0 26 24
Other Canadian services
Community services 11 11 2 2 0 0 13 13
House of Commons (CPAC) 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2
Non-Canadian services authorized for distribution in Canada 104 120 10 11 128 141 242 272
Total 374 392 84 84 186 187 644 663

Source: CRTC internal database

This table shows the types and number of television services that are authorized to broadcast in Canada. Types include conventional television services; various discretionary services (i.e., specialty, pay, PPV, and VOD); community services and the House of Commons (CPAC) service; and non-Canadian programming services authorized for distribution.

In regard to the data:

Table 4.2.6 Number of Canadian public/community/educational and private conventional television services authorized to broadcast, by province and language of broadcast, 2014
Province/territory English-language French-language Third-language Total
Public, community and educational Private conv. Public, community and educational Private conv. Public, community and educational Private conv. Public, community and educational Private conv.
British Columbia 6 12 1 0 0 1 7 13
Alberta 3 16 1 0 0 2 4 18
Saskatchewan 2 6 1 0 0 0 3 6
Manitoba 2 4 1 0 0 0 3 4
Ontario 5 24 3 0 0 2 8 26
Quebec 1 3 10 20 0 1 11 24
New Brunswick 2 3 1 0 0 0 3 3
Nova Scotia 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 3
Prince Edward Island 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
The North 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
Canada 27 73 18 20 0 6 45 99

Source: CRTC internal database

Nationally, Canadians have access to 99 private conventional television services and 45 public/community/educational television services. Québec leads all provinces in regard to public, community and education stations (11). Ontario leads all provinces in regard to private conventional television stations (26).

d) Audience measurement

In regard to this subsection:

Figure 4.2.15 Average number of hours Canadians watched traditional television (2010-2011 through 2013-2014 broadcast years) and Internet television (2008 to 2015)

Traditional television

These 2 figures display the national average weekly viewing hours for Canadians aged 18+, for traditional television and Internet television, respectively. For traditional television (on the left): 29.8 (2010-2011); 29.5 (2011-2012); 29.3 (2012-2013) and 29.0 (2013-2014). For Internet television among typical weekly users: 1.5 (2008); 2.0 (2009); 2.4 (2010); 2.8 (2011); 3.9 (2012);  5.1 (2013) and 7.0 (2014). For Internet television, on the basis of the total population: 0.3; 0.5; 0.5; 0.7; 1.3, 1.9 and 2.7.

Internet television

These 2 figures display the national average weekly viewing hours for Canadians aged 18+, for traditional television and Internet television, respectively. For traditional television (on the left): 29.8 (2010-2011); 29.5 (2011-2012); 29.3 (2012-2013) and 29.0 (2013-2014). For Internet television among typical weekly users: 1.5 (2008); 2.0 (2009); 2.4 (2010); 2.8 (2011); 3.9 (2012);  5.1 (2013) and 7.0 (2014). For Internet television, on the basis of the total population: 0.3; 0.5; 0.5; 0.7; 1.3, 1.9 and 2.7.

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada) Source: MTM (respondents: Canadians 18+)

These graphs show the national average number of hours Canadians 18 years of age and older watched traditional television (excluding digital media) and Internet television each week. The graph displaying Internet television data shows the viewing habits of respondents who watch Internet television every week, as well as those of the national average. 2014 data for Internet TV is unavailable and 2015 data is based on MTM’s spring survey.

Whereas viewing of traditional television has fallen in the past 4 years, Internet television viewing has increased considerably.

Table 4.2.7 Average number of hours Canadians watched traditional television each week, by age group
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
All persons 2+ 28.0 28.5 28.2 27.9 27.4
Annual growth   1.8% -1.1% -1.1% -1.8%
Children 2-11 22.4 22.7 22.2 21.6 20.6
Annual growth   1.3% -2.2% -2.7% -4.6%
Teens 12–17 23.0 22.4 22.7 21.0 19.9
Annual growth   -2.6% 1.3% -7.5% -5.2%
18–34 23.5 23.0 22.8 21.9 20.6
Annual growth   -2.1% -0.9% -3.9% -5.9%
35–49 25.1 25.3 24.8 24.7 24.0
Annual growth   0.8% -2.0% -0.4% -2.8%
50-64 32.5 33.6 33.1 33.2 33.4
Annual growth   3.4% -1.5% 0.3% 0.6%
65+ 40.4 42.2 41.9 41.5 41.8
Annual growth   4.5% -0.7% -1.0% 0.7%

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

This table shows the national average of weekly viewing hours by age group. It does not include digital media. For the third consecutive year, average weekly viewing declined across all age groups except for the 65+ age group which saw little movement over the same timeframe.

Table 4.2.8 Viewing share of Canadian and non-Canadian television services, by language and type of service, for all of Canada, excluding the Quebec francophone market (%)
2009- 2010 2010- 2011 2011- 2012 2012- 2013 2013- 2014
Canadian services - English-language
CBC 6.3 6.4 5.5 5.1 6.9
Private conventional 26.6 25.0 25.6 24.9 25.3
Specialty 36.9 36.0 35.7 36.3 35.6
Pay 6.5 6.3 6.2 5.7 5.3
Digital pay and specialty 5.9 7.0 7.7 9.1 9.4
Other services 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.0
Total English-language 84.5 83.0 82.8 83.4 84.5
Annual growth (%) -1.7 -0.3 0.7 1.3
Canadian services - French-language
CBC 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
Private conventional 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Télé-Québec 0 0 0 0 0
Specialty 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Pay 0 0 0 0 0
Digital pay and specialty 0 0 0 0 0
Total French-language 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8
Annual growth (%) 4.2 -0.3 -10.4 14.3
Canadian services - Other languages
Private conventional 1.3 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.6
Specialty 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.0
Digital 0 0 0 0 0
APTN 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2
Total other languages 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.8
Annual growth (%) 6.1 -12.5 -10.0 -10.0
Community services 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
VOD/PPV 0 0 0 0 0
Total Canadian services 87.9 86.7 86.1 86.4 87.4
Annual growth (%) -1.4 -0.7 0.3 1.2
Non-Canadian services
U.S. conventional 4.7 5.3 5.4 5.0 4.5
U.S. specialty 7.3 8.0 8.5 8.8 8.0
International 0 0 0 0 0
Total non-Canadian services 12.1 13.3 13.9 13.7 12.5
Annual growth (%) 9.9 4.5 -1.1 -8.8
Total hours (millions) 709.3 713.2 720.0 712.0 710.7
Annual growth (%) 0.6 1.0 -1.1 -0.2

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

Table 4.2.9 Viewing share of Canadian and non-Canadian television services, by language and type of service, in the Quebec francophone market (%)
2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014
Canadian services - French-language
CBC 12.5 12.9 11.8 12.8 13.4
Private conventional 32.9 32.3 32.0 32.4 30.8
Télé-Québec 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0
TFO 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3
Specialty 36.1 35.1 36.4 34.3 33.6
Pay 4.1 3.6 3.0 2.9 2.7
Digital pay and specialty 3.2 5.1 6.4 7.5 8.7
Total French-language 92.0 92.2 92.7 93.0 92.5
Annual growth (%) 0.2 0.5 0.3 -0.1
Canadian services - English-language
CBC 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.8
Private conventional 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7
Specialty 2.4 2.3 2.1 1.9 2.0
Pay 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5
Digital pay and specialty 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.7
Other services 0 0 0.1 0 0
Total English-language 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.2 5.7
Annual growth (%) -0.1 -8.9 -4.3 9.6
Canadian services - Other languages
Private conventional 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0
Specialty 0 0 0 0 0
Digital 0 0 0 0 0
APTN 0.1 0 0 0.1 0
Total other languages 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1
Annual growth (%) -21.8 46.6 42.9 -66.7
Community services 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
VOD/PPV 0 0 0 0 0
Total Canadian services 98.4 98.5 98.6 98.8 98.3
Annual growth (%) 0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.1
Non-Canadian services
US conventional 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0
US specialty 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5
International 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1
Total non-Canadian services 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.6
Annual growth (%) -4.2 -2.3 -2.7 14.3
Total hours (millions) 217.9 219.5 211.3 216.5 220.3
Annual growth (%) 0.7 -3.8 2.5 1.8

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

Table 4.2.10 Average weekly viewing hours for Canadian programs broadcast by Canadian television services, by language market, program origin, and program category (millions)
English-language and ethnic services, all of Canada (excluding Quebec francophone market) French-language services, Quebec francophone market
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014
News (category 1) 76.5 76.7 84.7 84.8 32.0 29.8 30.7 26.4
% Canadian 100 100 100.0 100.0 99.0 98.8 98.8 98.7
% of total 13.4 13.3 14.6 14.2 15.6 15.0 15.0 13.2
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 34.7 22.5 21.6 11.2 12.4 11.4 10.9 10.4
% Canadian 40.5 43.8 46.9 48.2 50.5 44.6 42.9 47.0
% of total 6.1 3.9 3.7 3.9 6.1 5.7 5.4 5.2
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding 2(b)) 57.0 52.7 52.2 50.2 34.1 32.6 32.7 28.7
% Canadian 51.1 55.6 56.9 59.1 91.3 91.1 91.1 91.3
% of total 10.0 9.1 9.0 8.4 16.6 16.4 16.0 14.4
Sports (category 6) 75.2 84.5 70.9 95.5 12.7 13.4 10.7 17.7
% Canadian 71.4 72.0 65.9 72.9 82.0 82.1 67.8 75.0
% of total 13.2 14.6 12.2 16.0 6.2 6.8 5.3 8.9
Drama and comedy (category 7) 235.8 236.5 237.4 227.5 78.3 75.3 79.8 76.0
% Canadian 19.7 20.1 20.0 19.4 30.2 29.3 29.1 28.8
% of total 41.3 40.9 40.9 38.1 38.2 38.0 39.1 38.1
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 10.7 9.7 10.5 9.0 4.4 3.5 3.8 3.1
% Canadian 41.8 27.4 23.8 34.6 80.8 80.8 81.5 85.4
% of total 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.5 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.6
Game show (category 10) 8.1 4.9 8.1 9.1 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.0
% Canadian 15.1 28.8 26.7 23.6 89.9 92.5 94.1 95.4
% of total 1.4 0.8 1.4 1.5 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.5
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 72.3 91.0 94.6 97.6 21.4 23.0 25.9 28.1
% Canadian 28.2 27.7 29.7 31.7 73.9 71.9 68.9 68.2
% of total 12.7 15.7 16.3 16.3 10.4 11.6 12.7 14.1
Other (categories 12 through 15) 0 0 0.1 4.1 0.8 0.4 0.4 18.6
% Canadian 100 98.0 96.4 61.5 98.5 98.2 91.6 67.8
% of total 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.0
Total 570.4 578.6 580.1 596.8 205.0 198.2 204.1 199.5
% Canadian 43.1 43.8 43.4 46.1 64.0 63.2 61.4 61.5

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

The data in this table and the following three tables are based on Canadian services with available data that incorporate country of origin and program genre.

Table 4.2.11 Average weekly viewing hours for Canadian programs broadcast by private conventional television services, by language market, program origin, and program category (millions)
English-language and ethnic services, all of Canada (excluding Quebec francophone market) French-language services, Quebec francophone market
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014
News (category 1) 34.3 35.4 36.7 37.3 11.0 9.4 10.3 9.2
% Canadian 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
% of total 20.0 20.2 21.6 22.0 15.6 14.1 14.8 13.6
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 2.4 1.0 1.5 1.8 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.2
% Canadian 57.8 91.9 95.2 89.2 95.2 76.4 90.5 79.9
% of total 1.4 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.4
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding 2(b)) 12.0 11.0 10.4 10.5 15.9 15.1 14.5 12.3
% Canadian 53.8 58.3 62.2 65.8 99.6 99.6 100 99.8
% of total 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.2 22.6 22.5 20.8 18.3
Sports (category 6) 3.8 11.6 4.6 3.8 0.2 1.3 0 0.7
% Canadian 4.6 66.0 6.5 7.4 100 96.9 85.9 60.9
% of total 2.2 6.6 2.7 2.3 0.2 2.0 0.0 0.1
Drama and comedy (category 7) 70.8 67.1 64.9 65.3 25.2 23.7 26.9 28.4
% Canadian 10.8 10.5 10.3 10.0 24.3 23.9 22.7 22.5
% of total 41.4 38.3 38.1 38.6 35.8 35.3 38.7 42.2
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 6.2 6.3 7.3 5.4 1.9 1.0 0.9 0.3
% Canadian 9.6 3.4 2.0 3.5 74.7 67.5 59.7 71.1
% of total 3.6 3.6 4.3 3.2 2.6 1.5 1.3 0.4
Game show (category 10) 3.1 1.8 5.0 6.0 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.9
% Canadian 0.2 0 3.7 2.9 97.6 97.6 99.5 99.5
% of total 1.8 1.0 2.9 3.5 8.3 9.3 9.6 10.2
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 38.7 40.9 40.0 39.1 8.9 9.7 9.7 9.9
% Canadian 22.1 23.7 22.9 29.0 69.4 80.2 81.5 85.9
% of total 22.6 23.4 23.5 23.1 12.6 14.5 14.0 14.8
Other
(categories 12 through 15)
0 0 0 0 0.7 0.4 0.3 0
% Canadian 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 0
% of total 0 0 0 0 1.0 0.6 0.5 0
Total 171.1 175.0 170.1 169.2 70.3 67.1 69.4 67.2
% Canadian 34.5 38.5 35.9 38.0 68.1 69.3 66.9 64.9

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

Table 4.2.12 Average weekly viewing hours for Canadian programs broadcast by CBC conventional services, by language market, program origin, and program category (millions)
English-language and ethnic services, all of Canada (excluding Quebec francophone market) French-language services, Quebec francophone market
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014
News (category 1) 6.8 6.6 7.1 7.2 4.1 3.8 4.4 4.1
% Canadian 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
% of total 15.2 17.2 20.4 14.9 14.6 15.4 15.9 13.9
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
% Canadian 97.7 96.1 96.6 98.4 97.2 98.8 93.0 98.7
% of total 3.9 3.8 4.7 2.8 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding 2(b)) 2.4 2.2 2.9 2.1 4.6 4.0 3.6 2.8
% Canadian 100 100 99.9 100 100 100 99.9 99.9
% of total 5.3 5.6 8.3 4.3 16.1 16.0 12.9 9.6
Sports (category 6) 15.4 11.5 9.9 25.4 0.4 0.2 0.3 2.9
% Canadian 98.7 99.9 100 100 100 99.6 100 99.9
% of total 34.4 29.6 28.3 52.6 1.4 1.0 1.0 9.7
Drama and comedy (category 7) 11.1 11.5 9.4 8.6 8.3 7.4 9.0 8.4
% Canadian 46.4 42.6 54.1 56.0 72.8 73.1 70.0 70.0
% of total 24.9 29.6 26.9 17.8 29.1 29.7 32.4 28.6
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.5
% Canadian 78.8 36.2 100 100 99.5 99.4 100 100
% of total 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 3.0 4.4 5.1 5.1
Game show (category 10) 4.4 2.5 0.2 0 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.5
% Canadian 0 0 0 0 100 100 100 100
% of total 10.0 6.6 0.5 0 7.9 7.3 6.2 5.1
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 2.8 2.8 3.7 3.6 7.6 6.2 7.0 7.9
% Canadian 99.2 99.6 99.5 99.6 99.8 100 100 100
% of total 6.2 7.2 10.6 7.4 26.7 25.0 25.3 26.9
Other
(categories 12 through 15)
0 0 0 2.2 0 0 0.0 0.3
% Canadian 0 0 0 100 95.8 100 100 100
% of total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 44.7 38.8 35.0 48.3 28.3 24.8 27.6 29.5
% Canadian 76.1 75.9 86.9 92.1 92.0 92.0 90.2 91.4

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

Table 4.2.13 Average weekly viewing hours for Canadian programs broadcast by Canadian pay and specialty services, by language market, program origin, and program category (millions)
English-language and ethnic services, all of Canada (excluding Quebec francophone market) French-language services, Quebec francophone market
2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2013-2014
News (category 1) 35.8 35.1 41.2 40.3 16.9 16.5 16.0 13.1
% Canadian 100 100 100 99.9 98.0 97.8 97.7 97.5
% of total 10.2 9.8 11.2 10.6 16.9 16.5 15.9 12.8
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 28.4 17.6 16.0 20.0 10.6 10.3 9.8 9.9
% Canadian 36.3 39.0 41.0 41.1 45.8 43.1 41.2 44.6
% of total 8.1 4.9 4.3 5.3 10.6 10.3 9.7 9.6
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding 2(b)) 40.4 37.1 36.6 37.6 12.4 12.4 13.5 13.6
% Canadian 46.6 51.4 51.2 55.0 77.8 78.5 79.4 81.7
% of total 11.5 10.3 9.9 9.9 12.5 12.4 13.4 13.3
Sports (category 6) 56.1 61.5 56.5 66.3 12.2 11.9 10.4 14.8
% Canadian 68.4 67.9 64.7 66.3 81.2 80.1 66.9 70.2
% of total 16.0 17.1 15.3 17.5 12.2 11.8 10.4 14.4
Drama and comedy (category 7) 151.9 154.9 159.1 153.6 40.8 40.5 40.2 39.2
% Canadian 21.0 22.1 21.7 21.3 23.5 22.9 23.5 24.5
% of total 43.3 43.0 43.2 40.5 40.9 40.4 40.0 38.1
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 4.4 3.2 3.1 3.5 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.3
% Canadian 85.7 74.1 73.6 81.3 74.0 69.6 72.8 71.8
% of total 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.3
Game show (category 10) 2.5 2.0 3.2 3.1 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6
% Canadian 48.0 69.9 62.4 63.0 8.4 32.1 15.9 35.8
% of total 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 31.6 48.7 53.1 54.8 4.5 6.8 8.7 10.2
% Canadian 28.6 26.1 28.7 29.1 36.9 32.9 28.0 26.4
% of total 9.0 13.5 14.4 14.5 4.5 6.7 8.7 9.9
Other
(categories 12 through 15)
0 0 0 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2
% Canadian 0 0 0 16.7 78.7 56.6 33.3 62.0
% of total 0 0 0 0 0.1 0 0 0
Total 351.2 360.1 368.8 379.3 99.8 100.2 100.5 102.8
% Canadian 42.5 42.6 42.6 43.9 53.5 52.2 50.0 50.8

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

Table 4.2.14 Viewing share of English- and French-language Canadian services, by ownership group and linguistic market (%)
2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014
Conventional Discretionary Total Conventional Discretionary Total Conventional Discretionary Total
All of Canada, excluding the Quebec francophone market
BCE 16.7 18.5 35.2 15.4 22.9 38.3 15.6 19.9 35.5
English services 16.7 18.4 35.1 15.4 22.7 38.1 15.6 19.7 35.2
French services - 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 0.2 - 0.3 0.3
Shaw 8.8 14.3 23.1 8.5 15.0 23.5 8.3 14.3 22.6
English services 8.8 14.3 23.1 8.5 15.0 23.5 8.3 14.3 22.6
French services - - - - - - - - -
Corus 0.2 9.6 9.8 0.3 12.8 13.1 1.7 11.7 13.3
English services 0.2 9.6 9.8 0.3 12.8 13.1 1.7 11.6 13.2
French services - - - - 0 0 - 0.1 0.1
Rogers 4.7 4.2 8.8 4.6 4.7 9.3 4.5 5.2 9.7
English services 4.7 4.2 8.8 4.6 4.7 9.3 4.5 5.2 9.7
French services - - - - - - - - -
CBC-SRC 6.4 1.7 8.1 5.6 1.8 7.5 8.3 1.9 10.2
English services 6.2 1.6 7.8 5.5 1.8 7.3 8.2 1.8 10.0
French services 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
Total hours (millions) 249.7 361.0 610.7 237.5 368.3 605.8 238.1 362.5 600.7
Quebec francophone market
Quebecor 24.0 8.3 32.3 24.4 8.6 32.9 23.4 8.7 32.1
French services 24.0 8.3 32.3 24.4 8.6 32.9 23.4 8.7 32.1
English services - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
BCE 1.0 7.1 8.1 0.9 21.9 22.8 0.8 21.3 22.1
French services - 5.5 5.5 - 20.3 20.3 - 19.8 19.8
English services 1.0 1.5 2.5 0.9 1.6 2.5 0.8 1.5 2.3
SRC-CBC 12.3 5.1 17.4 13.0 5.1 18.2 14.5 4.9 19.4
French services 11.7 5.0 16.7 12.6 5.1 17.7 13.7 4.9 18.6
English services 0.6 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.8
Remstar 8.6 - 8.6 8.6 - 8.6 8.0 0.9 9.0
French services 8.6 - 8.6 8.6 - 8.6 8.0 0.9 9.0
English services - - - - - - - - -
Corus - - - - - - - 8.0 8.0
English services - - - - - - 0.0 0.3 0.3
French services - - - - - - - 7.7 7.7
Total hours (millions) 104.1 103.6 207.6 109.3 103.6 212.8 109.7 106.1 215.7

Source: Numeris (formerly BBM Canada)

This table presents viewing data broken down by ownership group.

e) Programming expenditures

The policy objectives of the Broadcasting Act include encouraging the development of Canadian expression and ensuring that each element of the Canadian broadcasting system contributes in an appropriate manner to the creation and presentation of Canadian programming. As such, Canadian broadcasters are required to allocate portions of their annual broadcasting revenues to expenditures on Canadian programming. These expenditures are used to create Canadian programming and to ensure that a diversity of voices and interests are represented in our national broadcasting system.

What are PNI?

The CRTC has defined programs of national interest (PNI) as including drama and comedy, long-form documentary, and specific Canadian award shows that celebrate Canadian creative talent. For French-language broadcasters, PNI also include music video and variety programs.

For the purposes of this report, PNI expenditures include expenditures in any of the following program categories:

  • long-form documentary (category 2b);
  • drama and comedy (category 7);
  • French-language music, dance, and variety programming (categories 8 and 9); and
  • English-language award shows (subset of category 11).

The data presented in figures 4.2.20 and 4.2.21, and tables 4.2.16 and 4.2.17, include broadcasting undertakings that do not, at the time of this report, have a condition of licence setting out PNI expenditures or exhibition requirements.

Television service providers contributed 43 cents per revenue dollar in support of Canadian programming during the 2013-2014 broadcast year. Canadian programming expenditures (CPE) totalled $3 billion, 15% of which was spent on program of national interest (PNI).

Chart 4.2.2 illustrates the flow of funding to the creation of Canadian programming. A percentage of BDU subscriber revenues is used to fund Canadian discretionary (pay, specialty, PPV and VOD) services, as well as local expression (community television), the Canada Media Fund (CMF), the LPIF, and various independent funds. Commercial television services (specialty, pay, and private conventional OTA) and the CBC rely on funds generated by advertising. Government funding is also provided to the CMF, the CBC (via parliamentary appropriations), and various independent content providers.

Chart 4.2.2 Canadian programming funding ecosystem (2013-2014 broadcast year)

This chart provides an overview of the major sources of television program funding in Canada.

Of the revenues that BDUs collected from subscribers, approximately $475 million went to various Canadian programming commitments and nearly $3 billion was allocated to programming services.

Conventional television, pay and specialty services earned $3.4 billion in advertising revenues, which flowed to programming services. The “Other” category includes low-power, non-profit, community-based television programming undertakings and educational television programming undertakings.

Government funding includes the CBC, CMF and other funding to content providers.

This chart illustrates the flow of moneys used to fund Canadian programming. A percentage of subscriber revenues are used to fund Canadian programming services.  This amount totalled $2,885 million.  Contributions to various funds totalled $475 million (local expression, CMF, LPIF various independent funds). Commercial television programming services (specialty, pay, and private OTA) and the CBC rely on funds generated by advertising. Total TV advertising amounted to $3,361 million.  As a result, programming services aggregately spent $2,972 million on Canadian programming expenditures (PPV and VOD, pay & specialty, CBC, Private conventional, community and other services).  Government funding is also provided to the CMF, the CBC (via parliamentary appropriations) and various independent content providers.

Table 4.2.15 LPIF allocation and number of recipients
Broadcast year LPIF allocation ($ millions) Number of recipients LPIF funding as a percentage of recipients’ total revenues (excluding the CBC)
Licensees Stations
2009-2010 100.7 16 79 10.8%
2010-2011 106.7 16 80 10.8%
2011-2012 112.1 16 80 11.1%
2012-2013 74.7 16 74 7.3%
2013-2014 39.3 16 74 7,7%

Source: CRTC data collection

The CRTC has decided that the LPIF has fulfilled its purpose and was phased out on August 31, 2014.

Figure 4.2.16 LPIF allocation, by region

This bar line chart shows the distribution of LPIF by region as a percentage for years 2011 to 2014.  Prairies:  22.8%, 23.1%, 17.3% and 23.2%; Ontario: 24.5%, 24.3%, 40.9% and 23.0%; Québec: 21.4%, 20.8%, 22.6% and 21.2%; Atlantic: 19.8%, 20.2%, 4.8% and 22.0%; and British-Columbia and Territories: 11.4%, 11.6%, 14.3% and 10.6%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.17 LPIF allocation, by ownership group

The percentages of the LPIF funding allocated to Shaw, Rogers, Quebecor, and smaller entities as a group (Other) all increased during the last year, whereas those allocated to the CBC and BCE decreased.

This bar line chart shows the distribution of LPIF by ownership group as a percentage for years 2011 to 2014. BCE: 22.3%, 21.3%, 20.5% and 20.1%; Quebecor: 6.1%, 5.8%, 5.6% and 5.7%; CBC/SRC: 38.3%, 42.3%, 46.6% and 44.7%; Shaw: 7.6%, 6.4%, 5.1% and 6.2%; Rogers: 1.0%, 1.0%, 0.9% and 1.0%; and Other: 24.7%, 23.3%, 21.2% and 22.3%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.18 CPE on television, by type of service, 2014 ($ millions)

This pie chart shows total CPE as a percentage of total CPE reported by the television sector in 2014. Total CPE reported is $2.9 billion: $1,470 million or 49% is related to specialty and pay services; $20 million or 1% is related to Pay-per-view and Video-on-demand services; $619 million or 21% is related to private commercial conventional television; $790 million or 27% is related to CBC conventional television; and $73 million or 2% is related to other public and not-for-profit conventional television services.

Source: CRTC data collection

This chart shows the amount that broadcasters spent on Canadian programming, by type of service, as well as the percentage of total CPE in each case. Approximately half of the spending went to specialty and pay services.

CPE amounts include spending on Canadian programs broadcast; writedowns of Canadian inventory; script and concept development; and loss on equity for Canadian programs. They also include spending relating to ownership transfer benefits (tangible benefits) and commitments made at the time of licensing. However, they exclude CMF “top-ups” reported by private conventional, specialty, pay, PPV, and VOD television services. CBC conventional television exclude indirect and facility cost allocations.

Figure 4.2.19 Television programming expenditures ($4.2 billion total), PNI vs. Canadian vs. non-Canadian, 2014

This chart shows the percentages of expenditures that broadcasters spent on Canadian programming (excluding PNI), PNI, and non-Canadian programming. Approximately 70% of the spending went to Canadian programming (PNI included). Programming of VOD and PPV services, as well as other public and not-for-profit conventional television services, is excluded.

This pie chart shows total television programming expenditures for PNI, Canadian and non Canadian programming as percentage of total programming expenditures reported by the television sector in 2014. PNI: 15%; Canadian programming (excluding PNI): 54%; Non Canadian programming: 31%.

Source: CRTC data collection

Figure 4.2.20 Programming expenditures per revenue dollar, 2014

This bar line chart shows programming expenditures per revenue dollar for non Canadian programming, PNI and Canadian programming (excluding PNI) for years 2012 to 2014.  Non Canadian programming: $0.20, $0.20 and $0.20; PNI: $0.09, $0.09 and $0.09; Canadian programming (excluding PNI): $0.35, $0.34 and $0.34.

Source: CRTC data collection

This figure shows the amounts that broadcasters spent on Canadian programming (excluding PNI), PNI, and non-Canadian programming, on a per-revenue-dollar basis. For example, it shows that for every dollar of revenue the broadcasters received in 2014, they spent $0.34 on Canadian programming (excluding PNI), $0.09 on PNI, and $0.20 on non-Canadian programming. This chart excludes VOD and PPV services as well as other public and not-for-profit conventional television.

Table 4.2.16 PNI expenditures by type of service and program category ($ millions)
Program category 2012 2013 2014
Private conventional television Long-form documentary 16.6 7.9 6.3
Drama 59.2 66.0 65.8
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 13.4 21.0 19.0
Award shows (English programming only) 0 2.6 2.3
Total private conventional television PNI 89.2 97.5 93.4
% of total 14.6 15.4 14.8
CBC Long-form documentary 43.8 38.8 30.3
Drama 160.3 154.9 138.1
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 15.6 16.3 21.5
Award shows (English programming only) 3.6 3.1 3.1
Total CBC PNI 223.4 213.0 192.8
% of total 36.4 33.7 30.6
Discretionary services Long-form documentary 94.8 105.8 106.1
Drama 193.5 199.2 220.1
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 9.1 12.0 11.3
Award shows (English programming only) 2.9 4.7 6.3
Total discretionary PNI 300.3 321.6 343.8
% of total 49.0 50.9 54.6
Total Long-form documentary 155.2 152.5 142.7
Drama 413.0 420.0 424.0
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 38.1 49.3 51.6
Award shows (English programming only) 6.5 10.4 11.7
Total PNI 612.8 632.1 630.0
% of total 100 100 100

Source: Public disclosure of aggregate annual returns for large ownership groups and CRTC data collection

This table summarizes the PNI expenditures made by the CBC, private conventional television, and discretionary services. The CBC section now includes discretionary services operated by the CBC.

Table 4.2.17 PNI expenditures by CBC and large private ownership groups, by program category ($ millions)
Program category 2012 2013 2014
CBC Long-form documentary 43.8 38.8 30.3
Drama 160.3 154.9 138.1
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 15.6 16.3 21.5
Award shows (English programming only) 3.6 3.1 3.1
Total CBC PNI 223.4 213.0 192.8
% of total 36.5 33.7 30.6
BCE Long-form documentary 29.5 43.2 47.0
Drama 39.4 99.1 96.2
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 0 0 0
Award shows (English programming only) 2.9 7.3 8.3
Total BCE PNI 71.8 149.7 151.5
% of total 11.7 23.7 24.0
Astral Long-form documentary 17.8 - -
Drama 64.9 - -
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 7.3 - -
Award shows (English programming only) 0 - -
Total Astral PNI 90.1 - -
% of total 14.7 - -
Shaw Long-form documentary 29.1 34.5 27.3
Drama 30.0 33.7 25.9
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 0 0 0
Award shows (English programming only) 0 0 0
Total Shaw PNI 59.1 68.3 53.3
% of total 9.6 10.8 8.5
Corus Long-form documentary 4.5 5.0 5.8
Drama 36.3 36.8 71.7
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 0 0 0
Award shows (English programming only) 0 0 0
Total Corus PNI 40.8 41.8 77.5
% of total 6.7 6.6 12.3
Rogers Long-form documentary 3.3# 4.6# 2.8
Drama 4.4# 5.8# 7.2
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 0 0 0
Award shows (English programming only) 0 0 0
Total Rogers PNI 7.7# 10.4# 10.0
% of total 1.3 1.6 1.6
TOTAL Long-form documentary 155.2 152.5 142.7
Drama 413.0 420.0 424.0
Music, dance, and variety (French programming only) 38.1 49.3 51.6
Award shows (English programming only) 6.5 10.4 11.7
Total PNI 612.8 632.1 630.0
% of total 100 100 100

Source: Public disclosure of aggregate annual returns for large ownership groups

Table 4.2.18 CPE for CBC English- and French-language conventional television, by program category ($ thousands)
Program category 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
News (category 1) 203,223 191,924 196,688 212,876 207,331
Annual growth (%) 22.6 -5.6 2.5 8.2 -2.6
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) #27,052 #39,242 #36,042 30,870 22,337
Annual growth (%) n/a 45.1 -8.2 -14.4 -27.6
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) #49,282 #59,292 67,446 63,744 62,792
Annual growth (%) -55.0 20.3 13.8 -5.5 -1.5
Sports (category 6) #159,521 157,190 158,698 127,730 258,029
Annual growth (%) 5.4 -1.5 1.0 -19.5 102.0
Drama and comedy (category 7) #148,868 141,049 158,420 153,529 136,895
Annual growth (%) 13.1 -5.3 12.3 -3.1 -10.8
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) #14,159 12,912 26,120 27,635 27,278
Annual growth (%) -37.8 -8.8 102.3 5.8 -1.3
Game show (category 10) #12,234 11,900 16,217 12,933 9,300
Annual growth (%) -11.4 -2.7 36.3 -20.3 -28.1
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) #81,875 94,059 73,474 70,337 64,807
Annual growth (%) 29.4 14.9 -22.3 -3.7 -7.9
Human interest
n/a n/a n/a 58,411 49,545
Award shows
n/a n/a n/a 7,467 7,725
Reality television
n/a n/a n/a 4,460 7,537
Other (categories 12 through 15) 0 2,203 #941 1,139 1,011
Annual growth (%) 0 0 -57.3 21.0 -11.2
Total (categories 1 through 15) #696,215 709,769 733,635 700,793 789,782
Annual growth (%) 5.8 1.9 3.4 -4.5 12.7

Source: CRTC data collection

The table shows CPE of CBC English- and French-language conventional television services, broken down by program category, from 2010 to 2014. The expenditures exclude indirect and facility cost allocations. Certain programming-related expenses were included as programming costs, consistent with CRTC guidelines. The breakdown for “General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality” (category 11) is only available as of 2013.

Table 4.2.19 CPE for private conventional television, by program category ($ thousands)
Program category 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
News (category 1) 304,358 316,922 353,646 355,287 361,050
Annual growth (%) -250.0 4.1 11.6 0.5 1.6
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) n/a n/a 16,600 7,894 6,261
Annual growth (%) n/a n/a n/a -52.4 -20.7
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) 50,474 55,033 32,150 31,128 29,339
Annual growth (%) -30.7 9.0 -11.3 -3.2 -5.7
Sports (category 6) 141,011 848 68,485 6,490 1,123
Annual growth (%) 3,607.9 -99.4 7,974.0 -90.5 -82.7
Drama and comedy (category 7) 71,365 58,322 59,169 65,959 65,759
Annual growth (%) -7.8 -18.3 1.0 11.5 -0.3
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 21,678 33,006 30,241 24,476 22,317
Annual growth (%) -43.2 52.3 -10.8 -19.1 -8.8
Game show (category 10) 22,933 22,033 17,546 19,394 19,042
Annual growth (%) 83.3 -3.9 -20.4 10.5 -1.8
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 68,256 75,577 83,017 92,345 113,897
Annual growth (%) -17.1 10.7 10.9 11.2 23.3
Human interest
n/a n/a n/a 72,953 84,669
Award shows
n/a n/a n/a 4,071 3,695
Reality television
n/a n/a n/a 15,321 25,533
Other (categories 12 through 15) 1,173 1,173 905 2,444 516
Annual growth (%) 325.0 0 -8.7 170.0 -78.9
Total (categories 1 through 15) 681,248 562,914 661,759 605,415 619,305
Annual growth (%) 13.7 -17.4 17.6 -8.5 2.3
% of total revenue 31.7 26.2 32.5 31.1 34.3

Source: CRTC data collection

CPE amounts include spending on Canadian programs broadcast; writedowns of Canadian inventory; script and concept development; and loss on equity for Canadian programs. They also include spending relating to ownership transfer benefits (tangible benefits) and to commitments made at the time of licensing. However, they exclude CMF “top-ups” reported by private conventional television services.

The breakdown for “General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality” (category 11) is only available as of 2013.

Figure 4.2.21 Distribution of CPE for private conventional television services, by program category, 2014

This pie chart depicts the percentage distribution by genre for the expenditures for private conventional television services: News (cat. 1): 58%; Other info. (cat. 2-5): 6%; Sports (cat. 6): 0%; Drama and comedy (cat. 7): 11%; Music, dance and variety (cat. 8 & 9): 4%, Game show (cat. 10): 3%, Human interest/Award shows/Reality (cat. 11): 18%; and Other (cat. 12-15): 0%.

Source: CRTC data collection

This figure shows the distribution, broken down by program category, of CPE of private conventional television services in 2014.

More than half of the expenditures were made on news programming. Other significant investments were made in general entertainment (including human interest and awards shows), and drama and comedy programming.

Table 4.2.20 Expenditures on non-Canadian programming by private conventional television services, by program category ($ thousands)
Program category 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
News (category 1) 145 90 57 4,631 594
Annual growth (%) 625.0 -38.0 -36.7 8,081.6 -87.2
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) n/a n/a 298 454 603
Annual growth (%) n/a n/a n/a 52.3 32.8
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) 5,270 16,522 15,034 9,750 10,975
Annual growth (%) -57.5 213.5 -7.2 -35.1 12.6
Sports (category 6) 14,823 17,916 17,877 20,269 19,953
Annual growth (%) 7.8 20.9 -0.2 13.4 -1.6
Drama and comedy (category 7) 553,796 480,114 488,652 483,024 516,266
Annual growth (%) -8.1 -13.3 1.8 -1.2 6.9
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 32,968 31,878 47,333 57,128 28,736
Annual growth (%) 4.0 -3.0 48.5 20.7 -49.7
Game show (category 10) 6,078 11,460 5,278 5,625 8,360
Annual growth (%) -53.3 88.5 -53.9 6.6 48.6
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 164,091 169,059 151,234 151,044 131,529

Annual growth (%)
-4.6 3.0 -10.5 -0.1 -12.9
Human interest
n/a n/a n/a 90,375 72,813
Award shows
n/a n/a n/a 14,173 16,152
Reality television
n/a n/a n/a 46,496 42,564
Other (categories 12 through 15) 6 1,994 51 52 2
Annual growth (%) -98.8 33,133.0 -43.7 2.4 -96.2
Total (categories 1 through 15) 777,176 729,033 725,813 731,978 717,018
Annual growth (%) -8.2 -6.2 -0.4 0.8 -2.0
% of total revenue 36.2 33.9 35.6 37.6 39.8

Source: CRTC data collection

For 2012-2014, the numbers shown for “Other informational (categories 2 through 5)” do not include expenditures on category 2(b)) programming. In addition, the breakdown for “General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality” (category 11) is only available as of 2013.

Table 4.2.21 Expenditures on non-Canadian programming by private and CBC conventional television services, by program category and linguistic market ($ thousands)
Program category 2014
English-language French-language
News (category 1) 594 -
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 725 44
Other informational
(categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b))
10,975 13
Sports (category 6) 19,953 -
Drama and comedy (category 7) 506,430 30,584
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 28,700 36
Game show (category 10) 8,360 -
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 129,789 1,786
Human interest
71,101 1,757
Award shows
16,152 -
Reality television
42,535 29
Other (categories 12 through 15) 2 58
Total 705,526 32,520

Source: CRTC data collection

Revenues for English-language private conventional television stations include revenues for ethnic stations since a significant portion of these stations’ revenues was derived from English-language programming.

Table 4.2.22 CPE and expenditures on non-Canadian programming reported by specialty services, by language of broadcast and program category ($ thousands)
Program category CPE Expenditures on non-Canadian programming
2013 2014 Growth (%) 2013 2014 Growth (%)
English-language services      
Number of services reporting 124 126   124 126  
News (category 1) 148,658 152,516 2.6 1,138 829 -27.2
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 83,182 74,625 -10.3 28,365 31,725 11.8
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) 85,931 102,077 18.8 15,643 5,368 -65.7
Sports (category 6) 337,251 452,314 34.1 71,572 88,377 23.5
Drama and comedy (category 7) 113,715 134,423 18.2 119,209 129,624 8.7
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 20,019 15,070 -24.7 836 1,414 69.1
Game show (category 10) 8,192 10,705 30.7 935 1,154 23.4
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 110,147 109,227 0.8 45,967 68,762 49.6
Human interest
66,375 45,617 -31.3 30,715 43,666 42.2
Award shows
4,657 6,291 35.0 20 174 770.0
Reality television
39,115 57,319 46.5 15,232 24,921 63.6
Other (categories 12 through 15) 21,920 21,488 -2.0 1,325 1,203 -9.2
Total (categories 1 through 15) 929,015 1,072,445 15.4 284,990 328,457 15.3
French-language services      
Number of services reporting 27 28   27 28  
News (category 1) 71,331 80,750 13.2 213 0 -100.0
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 25,765 27,010 4.8 4,650 7,040 51.4
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) 54,205 43,970 -18.9 1,697 2,686 58.3
Sports (category 6) 74,369 90,508 21.7 9,167 10,631 16.0
Drama and comedy (category 7) 24,138 22,904 -5.1 19,332 16,671 -13.8
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 11,985 11,276 -5.9 539 897 66.4
Game show (category 10) 1,173 3,540 201.8 0 0 -
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 8,676 13,767 58.7 3,639 5,728 57.4
Human interest
7,916 11,227 41.8 1,282 1,176 -8.3
Award shows
500 494 -1.2 3 10 233.3
Reality television
260 2,046 686.9 2,354 4,542 92.9
Other (categories 12 through 15) 4,527 6,036 33.3 447 453 1.3
Total (categories 1 through 15) 276,170 299,761 8.5 39,683 44,105 11.1
Third-language services      
Number of services reporting 45 40   45 40  
News (category 1) 3,734 3,922 5.0 1,412 1,575 11.5
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 1,371 1,518 10.7 0 0 -
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) 2,796 2,671 -4.5 712 554 -22.2
Sports (category 6) 431 1,250 190.0 963 1,266 31.5
Drama and comedy (category 7) 2,624 3,256 24.1 6,380 6,089 -4.6
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 10,565 6,559 -37.9 1,037 1,302 25.6
Game show (category 10) 470 710 51.1 561 2,702 381.6
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 2,482 4,502 81.4 3,969 2,034 -48.8
Human interest
2,234 4,238 89.7 3,967 2,034 -48.8
Award shows
248 264 6.5 2 0 -100.0
Reality television
0 0 - 0 0 -
Other (categories 12 through 15) 1,820 2,085 14.6 698 1,123 60.9
Total (categories 1 through 15) 26,393 26,473 0.3 15,731 16,645 5.8
Total specialty services      
Number of services reporting 196 194   196 194  
News (category 1) 223,723 237,187 6.0 2,764 2,405 -13.0
Long-form documentary (category 2(b)) 110,317 103,153 -6.5 33,015 38,764 17.4
Other informational (categories 2 through 5, excluding category 2(b)) 143,022 148,718 4.0 18,051 8,607 -52.3
Sports (category 6) 412,051 544,072 32.0 81,702 100,273 22.7
Drama and comedy (category 7) 140,478 160,582 14.3 144,921 152,384 5.1
Music, dance, and variety (categories 8 and 9) 42,570 32,905 -22.7 2,411 3,613 49.9
Game show (category 10) 9,835 14,956 52.1 1,496 3,857 157.8
General entertainment/ Human interest/ Reality (category 11) 121,315 127,496 5.1 53,575 76,524 42.8
Human interest
76,535 61,082 -20.2 35,964 46,876 30.3
Award shows
5,405 7,050 30.4 25 185 640.0
Reality television
39,375 59,364 50.8 17,586 29,463 67.5
Other (categories 12 through 15) 28,268 29,609 4.7 2,470 2,779 12.5
Total (categories 1 through 15) 1,231,578 1,398,679 13.6 340,405 389,206 14.3

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows total CPE and expenditures on non-Canadian programming of English-, French-, and third-language television services, broken down by program category. It also shows annual growth rates between the two study years and lists the number of services reporting in each linguistic category.

The data listed for English-language services include expenditures on bilingual programming and expenditures relating to ownership transfer benefits (tangible benefits) and to commitments made at the time of licensing, but exclude CMF “top-up” funding reported by pay and specialty services.

Table 4.2.23 CPE reported by PPV and VOD services ($ thousands)
2011 2012 2013 2014 Growth (%) 2011-2014
Total PPV and VOD services 16,838 16,280 17,317 19,905 18.2
Number of services reporting 30 26 23 24  

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows the total CPE reported by PPV and VOD services from 2011 to 2014, as well as the number of services reporting and the growth rate during that period.

Expenditures broken down by program category for PPV and VOD services are not available. The amounts shown exclude CMF “top-up” funding reported by PPV and VOD services, but include expenditures relating to ownership transfer benefits (tangible benefits) and to commitments made at the time of licensing.

 

Table 4.2.24   Statistical data reported by certain licensed VOD services
2013 2014
Number of titles on servers
Canadian Titles (English) 14,123 29,893
Canadian Titles (French) 9,772 16,667
Canadian Titles (other language) 6 42
Total Canadian Titles
23,901 46,602
Percent of all titles
27% 28%
Non-Canadian Titles (English) 51,088 94,855
Non-Canadian Titles (French) 11,899 21,834
Non-Canadian Titles (other language) 679 670
Total Non-Canadian Titles
63,666 117,359
Percent of all titles
73% 72%
Total (all titles) 87,567 163,961
Number of feature films on servers  
Canadian Titles (English) 2,370 4,934
Canadian Titles (French) 1,347 1,645
Total Canadian Titles (feature films)
3,717 6,579
Percent of all feature films
10% 10%
Non-Canadian Titles (English) 27,029 46,108
Non-Canadian Titles (French) 6,078 13,623
Total Non-Canadian Titles (feature films)
33,107 59,731
Percent of all feature films
90% 90%
Total (all feature films) 36,824 66,310
Number of orders (free and paid)  
Canadian Titles (free) 73,308,236 84,440,016
Canadian Titles (paid) 1,745,300 9,282,531
Total Orders - Canadian Titles
75,053,536 93,722,547
Percent of all orders
32% 27%
Non-Canadian Titles (free) 118,558,564 164,669,690
Non-Canadian Titles (paid) 41,471,066 86,545,739
Total Orders - Non-Canadian Titles
160,029,630 251,215,429
Percent of all orders
68% 73%
Total (free orders) – Canadian and non-Canadian 191,866,800 249,109,706
Total (paid orders) – Canadian and non-Canadian 43,216,366 95,828,270
Total (orders) 235,083,166 344,937,976
Remitted revenue ($ millions) 4.5 5.8

The 2013 data reflects data reported by 8 licensed VOD services and the 2014 data reflects data reported by 11 licensed VOD services. Titles and feature films data are based on availabilities on servers specifically on 31 August of each year. Orders are based on entire broadcast years ending 31 August. Remitted revenue to Canadian feature film rights holders are based on an entire broadcast year ending 31 August.

f) Tangible benefits

Table 4.2.25 Value of television transactions and corresponding tangible benefits for the period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
English-language services
Transactions 3 5 4 4 2 18
Value ($M) 2,086.4 2,254.0 106.0 #944.4 174.3 5,565.2
Benefits ($M) 183.4 224.2 18.6 #94.4 17.4 538.0
French-language services
Transactions - - - 3 1 4
Value ($M) - - - 1,512.8 22.9 1,535.7
Benefits ($M) - - - 151.3 2.3 153.6

g) Programming of high standards

What is the CBSC?

The Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (CBSC) is an independent organization created by the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB) to administer standards established by Canada’s private broadcasters. The CBSC’s membership includes more than 790 private-sector radio and television stations, specialty services, pay services, and networks across Canada. Membership includes broadcasters broadcasting in English, French, and third languages.

For more information, visit www.cbsc.ca.

The Broadcasting Act sets out that programming provided by broadcasting undertakings should be of high standard. The CRTC deals with programming complaints relating to public and community broadcasters, as well as non- members of the CBSC. The CRTC also deals with issues that are outside the parameters of the codes administered by the CBSC.

The CBSC administers specific codes of broadcast conduct and provides a means of recourse for members of the public regarding the application of the standards set out in the following codes:

Table 4.2.26 Number of television-related contacts received by the CRTC, by type of issue
CRTC – policies/ decisions Billing Quality of service/ delivery Terms and conditions Disability issues Programming Loudness Other
2013-2014 728 0 148 1 115 1,687 749 189
2014-2015 1,182 0 132 4 132 2,437 595 337

Source: CRTC Correspondence Tracking System

This table summarizes the contacts received by the CRTC, which included questions, comments, complaints, and other communications, broken down by the type of issue raised.

Table 4.2.27 Television programming complaints received by the Commission and referred to the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, by sector and issue
Market sector Type of complaint 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015
Complaints received Referrals to CBSC Complaints received Referrals to CBSC Complaints received Referrals to CBSC Complaints received Referrals to CBSC Complaints received Referrals to CBSC
Conventional television Abusive comment 26 - 30 2 30 6 15 5 24 6
Adult content 52 8 56 11 71 12 73 13 77 13
Alcohol advertising 4 - 8 - 18 3 9 2 14 1
Gender portrayal 2 - 9 - 5 1 6 - 3 -
Offensive comment 135 22 217 43 233 62 164 63 171 25
Offensive language 41 19 29 3 32 8 45 7 67 15
Television violence 84 14 76 14 54 8 61 11 68 9
Specialty channels Abusive comment - - 1 - 5 2 2 - 10 6
Adult content 31 10 23 12 16 9 19 10 19 7
Alcohol advertising - - - - 2 1 3 1 - -
Gender portrayal - - 1 - 1 1 - - 2 1
Offensive comment 19 5 161 87 44 23 46 25 51 24
Offensive language 13 6 7 5 11 7 15 8 8 4
Television violence 21 5 18 10 13 3 12 6 19 6
Pay and PPV services Abusive comment - - - - - - - - - -
Adult content 32 - 3 - 2 1 1 - 6 1
Alcohol advertising - - - - - - - - - -
Gender portrayal - - - - - - - - - -
Offensive comment - - - - - - - - 1 1
Offensive language - - - - - - - - 1 -
Television violence - - - - - - 1 - 1 -

Source: CRTC Correspondence Tracking System

Together, the CRTC and the CBSC receive and address a range of complaints regarding conventional television, pay, specialty and PPV services. This table shows the number of complaints received by the CRTC—and the number referred to the CBSC—regarding various issues across diverse market sectors for the 2010–2011 through 2014–2015 fiscal years (i.e., 1 April to 31 March). Between April 2014 and March 2015, approximately 22% of the complaints relating to television received by the Commission were referred to the CBSC. programming.

The CRTC’s Correspondence Tracking System counts multiple contacts from the same client regarding the same complaint as separate units. Consequently, the actual number of complaints received should be slightly lower than the figures indicated.

The category “Abusive comment” includes complaints alleging hatred or contempt incited on air against one of the groups identified in the Television Broadcasting Regulations, 1987 or the Specialty Services Regulations, 1990.

The category “Offensive comment” includes complaints alleging offensive humour, or other comments that do not fall under the “abusive comment” provision in CRTC regulations.

The category “Offensive language” includes complaints alleging offensive language in song lyrics or in spoken word programming.

Table 4.2.28 Television-related complaints handled by the CBSC, by language of broadcast and origin of the program (2013-2014)
Conventional and specialty TV Pay TV Total
Language of broadcast
English-language 599 7 606
French-language 140 3 143
Third-language 6 0 6
Other 5 0 5
Total 750 10 760
Origin of the program
Canadian 461 1 462
Foreign 232 7 239
Other 57 2 59
Total 750 10 760

The category “Other” in each case refers to complaints for which there was not enough information for the CBSC to determine either the language of broadcast or the national origin of the program.

What is the ASC?

Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) is a national, not-for-profit advertising self-regulatory body. The ASC’s Canadian Code of Advertising Standards is regularly updated to ensure it is current and contemporary – keeping pace with consumer and societal expectations.

The ASC responds to complaints by consumers and special interest groups regarding advertising with respect to all media subject to the Canadian Code of Advertising Standards, the principal instrument of advertising self-regulation. In addition, the ASC undertakes pre-clearance functions in five industry categories, which consist of reviewing advertisements based on applicable legislation, regulations, and/or industry codes and guidelines.

Additional information on the ASC can be found at: www.adstandards.com/en/

Source: CBSC annual reports

Table 4.2.29 Complaints relating to digital advertising and advertising on television, handled by the ASC
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Total number of complaints 1,200 1,809 1,310 1,310 1,274
Complaints about television advertisements 526 686 559 528 500
% of total complaints received 44 38 43 40 39
Complaints about digital advertisements n/a n/a 280 240 289
% of total complaints received     21 18 23

Source: ASC Ad complaints reports

h) Ownership groups

The following tables provide an overview of the different broadcasting ownership groups with a controlling interest in various types of discretionary services in 2014. The overview covers the type of services offered, as well as the language of the service, subscriber numbers, revenues, PBIT and PBIT margin for each service.

In regard to this section:

The abbreviations used in the following table are defined as follows:

Table 4.2.30 BCE – Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
English-language
Animal Planet Sp. B 2,428 9,143 3,544 38.8
Bell TV On Demand and Vu! VOD n/a 3,225 994 30.8
Bell TV On Demand and Vu! PPV** n/a 36,555 2,181 6.0
Book Television Sp. A 823 4,607 2,975 64.6
Bravo! Sp. A 6,602 53,302 26,653 50.0
Business News Network Sp. A 6,205 31,851 12,236 38.4
CablePulse 24 Sp. A 3,583 26,776 4,226 15.8
Comedy Gold Sp. B 839 4,729 2,965 62.7
CTV News Channel Sp. C 8,218 26,587 8,551 32.2
Discovery Channel Sp. A 7,560 99,823 27,207 27.3
Discovery Science Sp. B 1,617 5,606 1,829 32.6
Discovery Velocity (formerly Discovery World) Sp. B 1,229 25,357 14,301 56.4
E! Sp. A 7,136 29,349 6,029 20.5
ESPN Classic Canada Sp. B 956 3,035 1,059 34.9
Fashion Television Channel Sp. A 729 4,687 1,550 33.1
Investigation Discovery Sp. B 1,458 9,696 5,562 57.4
Juicebox Sp. B 253 618 517 83.7
M3 Sp. A 6,043 19,831 2,711 13.7
MTV Canada Sp. A 6,073 20,768 -4,721 -22.7
MTV2 Canada Sp. A 1,021 5,078 1,838 36.2
MuchLoud Sp. B 120 357 239 66.9
MuchMusic Sp. A 9,240 37,363 -643 -1.7
MuchMoreRetro Sp. B 252 745 560 75.1
MuchVibe Sp. B 351 670 502 74.9
Northwestel VOD VOD n/a 850 -158 -18.6
Space Sp. A 6,355 51,086 17,398 34.1
The Comedy Network Sp. A 5,692 58,631 29,085 49.6
The Movie Network Pay A 1,153 124,480 26,671 21.4
The Movie Network Encore Pay A 1,316 21,824 12,134 55.6
The Sports Network (TSN) Sp. C 9,050 452,188 125,996 27.9
Viewer’s Choice Canada PPV** 2,521 10,107 -700 -6.9
French-language
Câblevision du Nord de Québec inc. VOD n/a 509 38 7.5
Canal D Sp. A 2,512 44,279 22,191 50.1
Canal D Investigation Sp. B 260 605 -5,476 -905.2
Canal Vie Sp. A 2,332 47,541 19,225 40.4
CINÉPOP Pay B 1,180 10,302 5,571 54.1
Le Réseau des Sports (RDS) Sp. C 3,241 177,592 44,997 25.3
RDS Info Sp. A 1,181 7,532 -4,144 55.0
Super Écran Pay A 624 63,198 21,718 34.4
VRAK.TV Sp. A 2,052 26,696 6,593 24.8
Ztélé Sp. A 2,332 25,982 8,526 32.8

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.31 CBC - Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
English-language
CBC News Network Sp. C 11,376 89,952 13,729 15.3
Documentary Sp. A 2,693 6,552 846 12.9
French-language
ARTV Sp. A 2,026 15,834 117 0.7
EXPLORA Sp. B 532 3,830 n/a n/a
RDI Sp. C 11,187 56,741 872 0.2

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.32 Cogeco - Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
Cogeco On Demand/Cogeco Sur Demande VOD n/a 17,647 4,723 26.8

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.33 Corus- Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
English-language
ABC Spark Sp. B n/a 10,747 n/a n/a
Cartoon Network Sp. B n/a 3,992 n/a n/a
CMT Canada Sp. A 10,221 19,624 2,654 13.5
Cosmopolitan TV Sp. B n/a 9,670 n/a n/a
Encore Avenue Pay A 2,139 20,258 11,185 55.2
EuroWorld SPORT Sp. B n/a 54 n/a n/a
Movie Central Pay A 927 85,037 6,413 7.5
Nickelodeon Sp. B n/a 6,460 n/a n/a
OWN Sp. A 6,059 28,502 3,830 13.7
Sundance Channel Sp. B n/a 4,937 n/a n/a
TELETOON Retro Sp. B n/a 7,073 n/a n/a
TELETOON/TÉLÉTOON Sp. A 8,689 79,332 19,629 24.7
TreeHouse TV Sp. A 8,365 13,342 4,955 37.1
W Movies Sp. B n/a 7,650 n/a n/a
W Network Sp. A 7,928 81,407 37,094 45.6
YTV Sp. A 11,155 80,225 32,582 40.6
French-language
Historia Sp. A 1,479 22,347 12,569 56.2
Séries+ Sp. A 1,479 33,406 19,294 57.8
TÉLÉTOON Rétro Sp. B n/a 1,693 n/a n/a
Third-language
Mediaset Italia Sp. B n/a 987 n/a n/a
Sky TG24 Canada Sp. B n/a 363 n/a n/a
Telelatino Sp. A 4,327 16,297 7,329 45.0
Teleniños Sp. B n/a 33 n/a n/a
Univision Canada Sp. B n/a 1,485 n/a n/a

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.34 Québecor - Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
French-language
addikTV Sp. A 1,253 11,191 1,483 13.3
ARGENT Sp. A 552 2,354 -534 -22.7
Canal Indigo PPV** 1,610 10,171 4,012 39.4
Casa Sp. B 1,069 9,359 1,182 12.6
Illico sur demande VOD n/a 56,336 -2,904 -5.2
Le Canal Nouvelles (LCN) Sp. C 2,662 31,628 7,734 24.5
Moi&cie Sp. B 692 4,561 -3,220 -70.6
Prise 2 Sp. B 1,065 8,486 2,370 27.9
TVA Sports Sp. C 1,669 16,560 -18,789 -113.5
YOOPA Sp. B 798 3,724 -500 -13.4
English-language
Sun News Network Sp. C 5,013 8,499 -14,801 -174.2

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.35 Rogers - Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
English-language
FX Canada Sp. B 4,035 10,128 -94 -0.9
FXX Sp. B 353 216 -3,818 -1,769.9
G4 Sp. A 2,257 9,329 4,265 45.7
OLN Sp. A 5,194 19,947 4,009 20.1
Rogers on Demand VOD n/a 49,905 -379 -0.8
Sportsnet Sp. C 8,290 311,939 48,560 15.6
Sportsnet 360 Sp. A 5,869 29,311 3,653 12.5
Sportsnet One Sp. C 6,127 78,852 34,107 43.3
Sportsnet PPV PPV** 28 12,622 2,555 20.2
Sportsnet World Sp. B 93 11,526 3,172 27.5
The Biography Channel Sp. A 1,986 7,355 2,056 28.0

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

Table 4.2.36 Shaw - Controlling ownership interest in discretionary services, 2014
Type of service Number of subscribers (000) Revenues ($) (000) PBIT ($) (000) PBIT margin (%)
English-language
Action Sp. B 4,493 22,364 14,286 63.9
BBC Canada Sp. B 2,681 10,816 6,310 58.3
BC News 1 Sp. B 924 1,508 -4,755 -315.3
D.I.Y. Network Sp. B 3,256 12,093 8,406 69.5
DéjaView Sp. B 1,533 7,983 4,282 53.6
DTOUR Sp. A 5,336 27,035 13,874 51.3
Food Network Canada Sp. A 6,201 69,107 37,184 53.8
FYI, (formerly Twist TV) Sp. A 2,094 7,003 2,924 41.8
H2 Sp. A 2,954 8,094 3,253 40.2
HGTV Canada Sp. A 7,250 76,620 43,744 57.1
History Television Sp. A 7,083 77,705 46,609 60.0
Independent Film Channel Canada Sp. A 1,410 10,344 5,200 50.3
Lifetime Sp. B 4,025 21,747 8,143 37.4
MovieTime Sp. B 4,439 15,071 9,284 61.6
Crime + Investigation (formerly Mystery) Sp. A 3,202 17,778 9,103 51.2
NatGeo Wild Sp. B 2,906 6,409 1,247 19.5
National Geographic Channel Canada Sp. B 5,615 27,368 18,363 67.1
Shaw on Demand VOD n/a 69,248 3,419 49.4
Shaw Pay-Per-View PPV** n/a 14,374 -806 -4.6
Showcase Sp. A 7,128 75,690 43,222 57.1
Slice Sp. A 5,230 43,389 8,388 1.9

Sources: CRTC ownership records and CRTC data collection

4.3 Broadcasting distribution sector

This display presents several key indicators for the broadcasting distribution sector and is divided into 5 sections.  First indicator: revenues: $9.1 billion, an increase of 1.4% over 2013.  Second indicator: subscribers: 11.6 million, a decrease of 1.0% over 2013. Third indicator: affiliation payments: 88% are to Canadian services. Fourth indicator: IPTV subscriber share:  15%, up from 12% in 2013. Fifth indicator: pie chart shows percentage of broadcasting distribution revenues as a proportion of all broadcasting revenues in 2014.  Broadcasting distribution revenues were 52% of all broadcasting revenues. Total broadcasting revenues were $17.3 billion.

Broadcasting distribution undertakings (BDUs) provide subscription television service to Canadians. They distribute mainly conventional television and discretionary (i.e., pay, specialty, pay-per-view (PPV) and video-on-demand (VOD) services.

The BDU section of this report focuses on three types of BDUs: cable, Internet protocol television (IPTV), and national direct-to-home (DTH) satellite service providers. The Canadian distribution landscape is dominated by cable and DTH satellite BDUs. However, IPTV service providers have recently expanded their distribution networks and increased the number of Canadians they serve. Combined, the five largest BDUs reported 87% of programming distribution revenues.

Canadians have been increasingly turning to sources accessible over the Internet. Online video services are providing Canadians with more choice of where, when and how to access programs. These services include independent, non-affiliated services such as Netflix and YouTube.

Since 2010, over 80% of Canadian households have subscribed to BDU services. Canadians living in urban centres generally have a choice of three to four service providers and/or types of service, while those living in the North and in rural communities usually have access to fewer than three providers.

The providers of discretionary programming services (both Canadian and non-Canadian) receive remuneration from the BDUs that distribute their services. This remuneration is referred to as an affiliation payment, and is based on the number of BDU subscribers who receive the programming service. In 2014, BDUs reported paying $3.3 million in affiliation payments.

a) Revenues

Table 4.3.1 Revenues of broadcasting distribution undertakings – Basic and non-basic services ($ millions)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
Cable 5,402.2 5,604.7 5,482.9# 5,397.1# 5,224.4 -0.8
Percentage of total 66.4 65.4 63.2 60.5 57.7  
Annual growth (%) 8.7 3.7 -2.2 -1.6 -3.2  
IPTV 207.8 322.3 585.4 924.7# 1,284.2 57.7
Percentage of total 2.6 3.8 6.7 10.4 14.2  
Annual growth (%) 37.2 55.1 81.6 57.9 38.9  
DTH and MDS 2,385.3 2,532.1 2,492.4 2,472.2 2,413.8 0.3
Percentage of total 29.3 29.5 28.7 27.7 26.7  
Annual growth (%) 8.6 6.2 -1.6 -0.8 -2.4  
Reporting BDUs subtotal 7,995.4 8,459.1 8,560.8 8,793.9 8,922.4 2.8
Percentage of total 98.3 98.7 98.7 98.5 98.5  
Annual growth (%) 9.3 5.8 1.2 2.7 1.5
Non-reporting BDUs 134.5# 111.8# 113.2# 132.0# 132.0 -0.5
Percentage of total 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.5  
Annual growth (%) 9.7 -16.9 1.2 16.6 0.0  
Total revenues 8,129.9# 8,570.8# 8,673.9# 8,925.9# 9,054.4 2.7
Annual growth (%) 9.3 5.4 1.2 2.9 1.4

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows the annual revenues of cable BDUs, IPTV services and DTH satellite services collected by BDUs for cable, IPTV, and DTH services from 2010 to 2014, as well as the annual and compounded annual growth rates (CAGR) for all years combined. Figures listed for non-reporting BDUs are estimates calculated with the assistance of Statistics Canada for methodology issues. The data are for the 12-month period ending 31 August of each year. The growth of revenue from IPTV services is noteworthy relative to the other distribution services.

Basic and non-basic services: Basic television service is the smallest package of programming or channels to which consumers can subscribe. Non-basic services are the additional channels that can be added to basic service.

Multipoint distribution service (MDS): As of 1 September 2011, the Commission no longer issues MDS broadcasting licences. As part of the spectrum auction of the 2596 to 2686 MHz frequency band, which was the band used by MDS licensees, the Industry Canada converted various broadcasting certificates issued to MDS undertakings to Broadband Radio Service (BRS) licences. As of 1 September 2013, there are no MDS undertakings in operation.

b) Subscriber Data

Table 4.3.2 Broadcasting distribution undertakings subscriber numbers (thousands) – Basic and non-basic services
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
Cable 7,874.4 7,862.3# 7,700.6# 7,434.1# 7,049.5 -2.7
Percentage of total 68.4 66.9 65.6 63.2 60.5
Annual growth (%) 1.2 -0.2 -2.1 -3.5 -5.2
IPTV 419.6 657.3 1,002.5 1,381.5# 1,784.0 43.6
Percentage of total 3.6 5.6 8.5 11.7 15.3
Annual growth (%) 34.7 56.6 52.5 37.8 29.1
DTH and MDS 2,862.1 2,877.4 2,825.7 2,691.2 2,559.0 -2.8
Percentage of total 24.8 24.5 24.1 22.9 22.0
Annual growth (%) 3.7 0.5 -1.8 -4.8 -4.9
Reporting BDUs subtotal 11,156.0 11,397.0 11,528.9# 11,506.8 11,392.4 0.5
Percentage of total 96.8 97.0 98.3 97.8 97.8
Annual growth (%) 2.8 2.2 1.2 -0.2 -1.0
Non-reporting BDUs 363.7# 351.8# 204.0# 253.7# 253.7 -8.6
Percentage of total 3.2 3.0 1.7 2.2 2.2
Annual growth (%) 5.4 -3.3 -42.0 24.4 0.0
Total subscribers 11,519.8# 11,748.8# 11,732.9# 11,760.6# 11,646.1 0.3
Annual growth (%) 2.9 2.0 -0.1 0.2 -1.0  

Source: CRTC data collection

This table shows the number of subscribers of cable BDUs, IPTV services, and DTH satellite services from 2010 to 2014, as well as the annual growth rates and the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for years combined. Figures listed for non-reporting BDUs are estimates calculated with the assistance of Statistics Canada for methodology issues. The number of subscribers is as of 31 August of each year.

Table 4.3.3 Number of subscribers for the top five Canadian BDUs (thousands)
Corporations 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAGR (%)2011-2015
Rogers 2,303 2,276 2,189 2,107 1,983 -3.7
Annual growth (%) 0.3 -1.2 -3.8 -3.7 -5.9  
Shaw 2,219 3,168 3,044 2,883 2,760 -3.8
Annual growth (%) -0.4 -1.6 -3.9 -5.3 -4.2  
Videotron 1,809 1,854 1,849 1,811 1,771 -0.5
Annual growth (%) 1.3 2.5 -0.3 -2.1 -2.2  
Cogeco 881 873 853 816 780 -3.0
Annual growth (%) 0.8 -0.8 -2.4 -4.3 -4.3  
BCE 2,043 2,112 2,170 2,307 2,658 6.8
Annual growth (%) 3.8 3.3 2.8 6.3 15.2  
Total 10,255 10,283 10,105 9,924 9,953 -0.7
Annual growth 1.0 0.3 -1.7 -1.8 0.3  
% of all subscribers 88.1# 87.6# 86.0# 84.8 n/a  

Source: Corporate quarterly reports

This table show the number of subscribers for each of the top five Canadian BDUs (based on revenues) within their exclusive market sectors.

The data are as of 31 March of each year with the exception of those for Shaw and Cogeco, which are as of 28 February of each year. The data are for cable BDUs, IPTV services, and DTH satellite services. The data for Shaw include Shaw Direct, and the data for BCE include broadcasting distribution activities by Bell Canada and Northwestel (Northwestel data have been included since 2011). Due to the acquisition of Bell Aliant by BCE, Bell Aliant’s television subscribers are included with BCE as of 2015.

Table 4.3.4 Percentage of households subscribing to BDUs
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Household subscription rate (%) 84.5 83.5# 84.2# 83.7# 82.0

Source: CRTC data collection

Household subscription rate

To calculate the household subscription rates, the number of BDU subscriptions at the end of the annual period is divided by the total number of households in Canada.

c) Financial performance

Figure 4.3.1 EBITDA margins achieved by BDUs - Basic and non-basic services

This line chart shows the EBITDA margins in percentage of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization achieved from basic and non-basic programming activities by cable and IPTV, and DTH and MDS undertakings during the years 2010 to 2014. Cable and IPTV: 25.6%, 22.5%, 20.3%, 19.9%, and 16.3%; DTH and MDS: 23.9%, 24.4%, 30.1%, 33.4%, and 32.0%; Cable, IPTV, DTH and MDS combined:  25.1%, 23.1%, 23.1%, 23.7%, and 20.5%.

Source: CRTC data collection

This figure compares the EBITDA margins for cable BDUs and IPTV service providers with those of DTH satellite services and MDS providers, from 2010 to 2014. While these margins declined for cable BDUs and IPTV services, it increased for DTH satellite services and MDS’. The data are for the 12-month period ending 31 August of each year.

What are EBITDA margins?

The EBITDA margin, a measure of profitability, represents earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization and is expressed as a percentage of total revenues.

d) Performance indicators

Table 4.3.5 Monthly revenues per subscriber, by type of BDUs
Subscriber 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
Cable 57.51 59.36 58.72 # 59.43 # 60.12 1.1
Annual growth (%) 7.4 3.2 -1.1 1.2 1.2
IPTV 47.38 49.88 58.78 64.64 67.61 9.3
Annual growth (%) 0.7 5.3 17.8 10.0 4.6
DTH and MDS 70.70 73.53 72.84 74.69 76.63 2.0
Annual growth (%) 5.5 4.0 -0.9 2.5 2.6
All Reporting BDUs 60.54 62.51 62.24 # 63.63 # 64.94 1.8
Annual growth (%) 6.6 3.3 -0.4 2.2 2.1

Source: CRTC data collection

Monthly revenues per subscriber

Monthly revenues per subscriber are calculated by dividing BDUs’ annual revenues from basic and non-basic services by the average number of subscriptions in the year. The result is then divided by 12 to obtain the monthly amount. The average number of subscribers is determined by dividing the sum of the number of subscribers at the beginning and at the end of the year by two.

e) Prices

Each year, the Commission surveys the prices of basic television service in a number of urban centres and rural communities. The communities chosen for 2014 are set out in Appendix 9. In 2014, data from 24 major urban centres and a select number of rural communities shows that the prices of basic service and the number of channels included in the basic service varied significantly among service providers and across the communities served, for both types of communities.

Urban centres

Figure 4.3.2 BDUs basic service prices by major centre, 2014

Figure 4.3.2 shows the 2014 prices for BDUs’ basic services for Canadians living in 21 major urban centres. For the most part, those Canadians could choose from among three types of service providers: cable, IPTV or DTH satellite. The price of the basic television service varied, from lows of $30 to $37 per month to highs of $38 to $58 per month. This stacked bar chart shows the BDU basic service highest and lowest monthly prices in dollars by major centre, as well as number of providers in each centre.  Vancouver: 3 providers, low 34, high 42; Victoria: 3 providers, low 34 high 42; Calgary: 3 providers, low 34, high 42; Edmonton: 3 providers, low 34, high 42; Saskatoon: 3 providers, low 34, high 58; Regina: 4 providers, low 34, high 58; Winnipeg: 3 providers, low 32, high 45; Toronto: 3 providers, low 37, high 41; Ottawa-Gatineau: 4 providers, low 37 high 41; Hamilton: 4 providers, low 35, high 41; London: 3 providers, low 37, high 41; Kitchener-Waterloo: 3 providers, low 37, high 41; St Catharines – Niagara: 3 providers, low 35, high 41; Windsor: 3 providers, low 35, high 41; Oshawa: 3 providers, low 37, high 41; Montréal: 3 providers, low 30, high 38; Québec: 3 providers, low 30, high 38; Fredericton: 3 providers, low 37, high 57; Charlottetown: 3 providers, low 37, high 57; Halifax: 3 providers, low 35, high 57; St. John’s: 3 providers, low 37, high 57; Whitehorse: 3 providers, low 37, high 42; Yellowknife: 2 providers, low 34, high 42; Iqaluit: 2 providers, low 37, high 42.

Source: CRTC data collection

In this figure, the blue bar shows the lowest price for each urban centre, and the red bar, the highest price. The number of service providers in each urban centre is indicated in parentheses. As an example, there are three BDU service providers in Vancouver, where the lowest price is $34 and the highest price is $42.

The composition of a basic package of television services varied between 27 and 170 channels, depending on location and service provider. The services were generally available in digital and high definition formats, and the programming generally included television, radio, and music channels.

Rural centres

Figure 4.3.3 BDU basic service prices by province, urban and rural, 2014

This two-series stacked bar chart shows the BDU basic service highest and lowest monthly prices in dollars by urban are rural areas on a per province basis.  BC Rural: 3 to 4 providers, low 34, high 60;  BC Urban: 3 providers, low 34, high 42; Alberta Rural: 3 to 4 providers, low 34, high 61; Alberta Urban: 3 providers, low 34, high 42; Sask Rural: 3 providers, low 34, high 40; Sask Urban: 4 providers, low 34, high 58; Manitoba Rural: 2 providers, low 34, high 37; Manitoba Urban: 3 providers, low 34, high 45; Ontario Rural: 2 to 4 providers, low 27, high 50; Ontario Urban: 3 providers, low 35, high 41; Quebec Rural: 3 to 4 providers, low 22, high 38; Quebec Urban: 3 providers, low 30, high 38; NB Rural: 3 providers, low 37, high 42; NB Urban: 3 providers, low 37, high  57; PEI Rural: 2 to 3 providers, low 37, high 53; PEI Urban: 3 providers, low 37, high 57; NS Rural:, 2 to 3 providers, low 37, high 57; NS Urban: 3 providers, low 35, high 57; Nfld Rural: 3 providers, low 37, high 60; Nfld Urban: 3 providers, low 37, high 57; Yukon Rural: 2 providers, low 37, high 42; Yukon Urban: 2 providers, low 37, high 42; NWT Rural: 2 to 3 providers, low 34, high 41; NWT Urban: 2 providers, low 34, high 42; Nunavut Rural: 2 providers, low 37, high 42; Nunavut Urban: 2 providers, low 37, high 42.

Source: CRTC data collection

In this figure, the blue bar shows the lowest price available in each province (urban and rural areas surveyed), and the red bar, the highest price. The number of service providers in each province (urban and rural areas surveyed) is indicated in parentheses, As an example, in British Columbia, there are three to four service providers in the rural communities surveyed and three in the urban centres surveyed. The lowest prices offered by these providers for basic BDU service is from $34 to $60 per month in the rural communities, and from $34 to $42 in urban centres.

The monthly price of basic television service varied across the rural and urban communities surveyed, from lows of $22-$37 to highs of $37-$60 per month.

Which communities were included?

Fifty-four rural communities were selected to assess the price of BDU basic service in rural communities. These communities met the following criteria:

  • The community was not part of one of the CMAs of the 24 major centres;
  • It had a population density of fewer than 400 people per square kilometre, or its population centres had fewer than 1,000 people;
  • The number of communities in each province was proportional to the population of the province; and
  • The communities were not clustered together.

See Appendix 9 for more details.

f) Competitive landscape

Cable companies were the first providers of BDU services in Canada. By the mid-1990s, DTH satellite services had entered the Canadian market. More recently, IPTV services have become available.

In 2014, Canadians living in urban centres had access to three types of BDU service providers: cable, IPTV and DTH satellite. In rural areas, just over half of Canadians households were dependent on a DTH satellite service provider. Just less than half of rural Canadian households had access to both cable and DTH satellite service providers.

Figure 4.3.4 Percentage of revenues and subscribers by type of distribution platform, 2014

This pair of pie charts show the market share of revenues and subscribers by type of distribution platform.  For revenues: DTH and MDS are 27%, Cable is 59%, and IPTV is 14%.  For subscribers: DTH and MDS are 22%, Cable is 63%, and IPTV is 15%.

Source: CRTC data collection

g) Consumer voices

Table 4.3.6 Number of BDU-related received by the CRTC
Issue CRTC policies/ decisions Billing Prices/Rates Terms and conditions Disability issues Quality of service/ Delivery Competition Other* Total
2013-2014 699 1,562 342 336 61 2,062 116 654 5,832
2014-2015 755 1,298 223 313 62 480 110 2,300 5,541

Source: CRTC Correspondence Tracking System.

*The category “Other” included issues relating to Let’s Talk TV (447 contacts), NHL rights and blackouts (133 contacts), signal substitution (105 contacts), foreign broadcasters (102 contacts), basic services (57 contacts), channel placement (52 contacts), and issues relating to specific events that occurred in the 2014-2015 timeframe.

h) Online television services

Figure 4.3.5 Percentage of Canadians who watch TV exclusively online, nationally and by language

This clustered bar chart shows the percentage of Canadians who watch TV exclusively online, nationally and by language.  For National: In 2012: 4%; In 2013: 6%; In 2014: 8%.  For Anglophones: In 2012: 5%; In 2013: 6%; In 2014: 9%.  For Francophones: In 2012: 2%; In 2013: 3%; In 2014: 4%.

Source: MTM 2012-2014 (Respondents: Canadians 18+)

Figure 4.3.6 Percentage of Canadians who subscribed to Netflix, by region

This horizontal bar chart shows the percentage of Canadians who subscribed to Netflix, by region.  In British Columbia: 41%; In Alberta: 49%; In Manitoba and Saskatchewan: 32%; For Ontario: 37%; For Quebec: 15%; For Atlantic: 40%; In Total: 33%.

Source: MTM 2014 (Respondents: Canadians 18+)

Figure 4.3.7 Percentage of Canadians who subscribe to Netflix, by age group

This bar chart shows the Percentage of Canadians who subscribe to Netflix, by age group.  For 18+: 33%; For 18-34: 51%; For 35-49: 39%; For 50-64: 25%; For 65+ 11; For refused: 16%.

Source: MTM 2014 (Respondents: Canadians 18+)

Younger Canadians are more likely to subscribe to Netflix than older Canadians.

Figure 4.3.8 Likelihood of Canadians “cutting the cord” on their current traditional TV subscription in the next 12 months, 2013 and 2014 (percentage)

This pair of stacked bar charts show the percentage of Canadians holding various attitudes towards “cutting the cord” on their current traditional TV subscription in the next 12 months.  For 2013: 7% very likely, 9% somewhat likely, 29% not very likely, 51% not at all likely, and 3% don’t know. For 2014: 7% very likely, 13% somewhat likely, 26% not very likely, 51% not at all likely, and 3% don’t know.

Source: MTM 2014 (Respondents: Canadians 18+)

Table 4.3.7 Adoption and growth rates of various video technologies in Canada
Adoption (%) Growth 2010-2014 (%)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
PVR owner
Anglophones 23 35 43 46 50 117
Francophones 16 23 39 42 52 225
Internet TV viewer
Anglophones 31 34 38 42 47 52
Francophones 26 33 34 39 42 62
Netflix subscriber
Anglophones  n/a 10 21 29 39 290
Francophones  n/a 5 5 7 12 140

Source: MTM 2010-2014 (Respondents: Canadians 18+, viewed or used in the past month)

This table shows the percentages of Canadians 18 years of age and older who had adopted various video technologies and services each year from 2010 through 2014, as well as the growth in these percentages during that period (for Netflix, from 2011 to 2014). MTM describes “Internet TV” as watching or streaming television programs or clips available over the Internet.

i) Contribution to Canadian programming

During the 2013-2014 broadcast year, approximately 5% of BDU revenues were directed to various funds for the production of Canadian programming, such as the Canadian Media Fund or to local expression (i.e. community channels).

Figure 4.3.9 Contributions to the CMF, LPIF, and other independent production funds, and expenditures on local expression (community channels), as reported by BDUs ($ millions)

This line clustered-column on 2 axes chart depicts the BDU contributions to the Canadian Media Fund (CMF), Local Programming Improvement Fund (LPIF), other independent funds, and expenditures on community channels in millions of dollars for each of 2010 to 2014 broadcast years. Contributions to CMF: 189.0, 205.4, 208.1, 214.4, and 218.0; Contributions to LPIF:  100.7, 106.6, 112.0, 75.2, and 39.9; Contributions to other independent funds: 47.3, 50.4, 51.3, 51.7, and 55.0; Expenditures on community channels: 126.5, 119.8, 122.8, 138.6, and 151.6; Total combined contributions and expenditures:  463.5, 482.1, 493.6, 479.9 and 464.6.

Source: CRTC data collection

This figures shows the contributions made by BDUs to the CMF, the LPIF and other independent production funds, as well as spending on local expression (community channels), during the 12-month period ending 31 August of each year. BDU contributions include contributions reported by cable BDUs, DTH satellite services, MDS’s and satellite relay distribution undertakings (SRDUs).

Figure 4.3.10 Various recipients’ shares of BDU contributions to the creation and production of Canadian programming, and total BDU contributions ($ millions)

This bar chart shows contributions to the creation and production of Canadian programming by BDUs as a percentage for years 2010 to 2014. It also indicates the total contributions for each year in millions of dollars.  Contributions to CMF: 41%, 43%, 42%, 45% and 47%; Contributions to LPIF: 22%, 22%, 23%,16% and 9%; Expenditures on local expression: 27%, 25%, 25%, 29 % and 33%; Contributions to other independent funds: 10%, 10%, 10%, 11% and 12%.  Total revenues were 463, 482, 495, 480 and 465 million dollars.

Source: CRTC data collection

j) Affiliation payments

Table 4.3.8 Affiliation payments made to Canadian and non-Canadian discretionary services reported by BDUs
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CAGR (%) 2010-2014
Canadian affiliates
Affiliation payments made Cable and IPTV 1,633 1,809 1,930 2,024 2,195 7.7
Annual growth (%) 11 11 7 5 8
DTH and MDS 819 735 726 700 717 -3.3
Annual growth (%) 11 -10 -1 -4 2
Total payments 2,452 2,544 2,656 2,725# 2,911 4.4
Affiliation payments received Pay, PPV, and VOD 647 682 671 670 666 0.7
Annual growth (%) 9 5 -2 0 -1
Specialty 1,805 1,862 1,986 2,054 2,245 5.6
Annual growth (%) 12 3 4 3
Total received 2,452 2,544 2,656 2,725# 2,911 4.4
Annual growth (%) 11 4 4 3 7
Non-Canadian affiliates
Affiliation payments made Cable and IPTV 243 263 265 285 296 5.0
Annual growth (%) 18 8 1 8 4
DTH and MDS 75 81 86 94 93 5.4
Annual growth (%) 8 8 5 9 -1
Total payments 318 344 351 379 389 5.1
Affiliation payments received Pay, PPV, and VOD 46 48 34 37 37 -5.7
Annual growth (%) 21 3 -29 8 -1
Specialty 272 296 317 342 352 6.7
Annual growth (%) 14 9 7 8 3
Total received 318 344 351 379 389 5.1
Annual growth (%) 15 8 2 8 3
All affiliates
Affiliation payments made Cable and IPTV 1,877 2,072 2,195 2,310# 2,491 7.3
Percentage Canadian 87 87 88 88 88
Percentage of total 68 72 73 74 75
Annual growth (%) 12 10 6 5 8
DTH and MDS 894 816 812 794 809 -2.4
Percentage Canadian 92 90 89 88 89
Percentage of total 32 28 27 26 25
Annual growth (%) 11 -9 0 -2 2
Total 2,770 2,888 3,007 3,104 3,300 4.5
Affiliation payments received Pay, PPV, and VOD 693 730 705 707 702 0.3
Percentage Canadian 93 93 95 95 95
Percentage of total 25 25 23 23 21
Annual growth (%) 9 5 -3 0 -1
Specialty 2,077 2,158 2,303 2,396 2,598 5.7
Percentage Canadian 87 86 86 86 86
Percentage of total 75 75 77 77 79
Annual growth (%) 12 4 7 4 8
Total 2,770 2,888 3,007 3,104 3,300 4.5
Percentage Canadian 89 88 88 88 88
Annual growth (%) 11 4 4 3 6  

Source: CRTC data collection

This table provides a detailed breakdown of the amounts of affiliation payments made by BDUs (cable/IPTV vs DTH satellite/MDS) to discretionary services overall, and the amounts of affiliation payments received from discretionary services (pay/PPV/VOD vs specialty), broken down by Canadian and non-Canadian affiliates, for the years 2010 through 2014.

Payments to Canadian affiliates have increased annually by 4.4% since 2010, whereas payments to non-Canadian affiliates have increased by 5.1%. The data are based on the 12-month period ending 31 August of each year.

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