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Public Notice CRTC 2001-25

Ottawa, 12 February 2001

Achieving a better balance:
Report on French-language broadcasting services in a minority environment

Table of contents

Paragraph

Summary

 

Introduction

1

Trends in the use of French in Canada

7

Framework of the Commission's examination

12

Section 1: Availability of television
programming services

18

Section 2: Distribution of French-language broadcasting services

26

     Availability

26

     Comments

29

          Introduction of digital distribution

30

          The language criterion

36

          SPTV proposal

39

          Class 3 undertakings

42

     Analysis

45

          The way of the future: distribution in digital mode

45

          Approach for Class 3 distribution undertakings

59

          Accessibility at a moderate cost

67

          Distribution in analog mode

68

          Public television

75

          Distribution of Télé des Arts

82

          Distribution of RDI

87

          Distribution of TVA

91

          Distribution of CPAC

94

          Distribution of French-language educational television services

99

     Other distribution modes

103

          The CBC's regional service provided by satellite

103

          Approach for MDS

107

Section 3: Reflection of Francophone minority communities in broadcasting services

108

          Programming services - Television

108

          The Canadian public broadcaster (CBC)

112

          National distribution of the private television network (TVA)

118

          Provincial French-language educational television services

122

          Canadian specialty services

127

          Specialty services with distribution across Canada

130

          A new national public television service

132

     Community television

136

          Cable Community channels

136

          Independent production in minority communities

141

          Foreign French-language services

148

Section 4: Radio

152

     Service availability

152

          Public radio (CBC)

152

          Private radio

155

          Community radio

156

     Observations

157

          Public radio

158

          Community radio

162

     Analysis

168

          Allocation and assignment of frequencies

168

          The CBC

172

          Community broadcasting services

177

          Financing community radio

181

Section 5: New Media

184

          Rate of penetration by province

190

          High-speed Internet connection

200

Conclusion

202

Appendix 1: List of recommendations

 
Appendix 2: A policy to increase the availability to cable subscribers of specialty services in the minority official language
 

Appendix 3: Order in Council P.C. 2000-511

 
Appendix 4: Participants in the 18 October 2000 public hearing /
Locations and dates for the regional consultations in 2000
 

Appendix 5: Coverage of la Première Chaîne

 
Appendix 6: Coverage of La Chaîne culturelle
 
Appendix 7: French-language commercial originating stations and rebroadcasters outside Quebec
 
Appendix 8: French-language originating community stations and rebroadcasters outside Quebec
 

Appendix 9: Related documents

 

 

Summary

This report is further to Order in Council P.C. 2000-511 and stems from a series of public consultations held by the Commission in several Canadian cities in fall 2000.

As requested in the Order in Council, the report examines all French-language broadcasting services currently available to Francophone minorities. It also includes the Commission's conclusions on a policy (Public Notice CRTC 2001-26), whose objective is to increase the availability of Canadian specialty services on cable for official language minorities in Canada.

Many individuals and associations representing Francophones who took part in these consultations stated clearly that they want access to more French-language broadcasting services in their communities. They submitted that broadcasting services are essential to further their cultural development, given the minority environment in which they live.

Many interveners also noted that the greater channel capacity afforded by the ongoing transition from analog to digital technology in broadcasting distribution offers a unique opportunity to improve services to all Canadians, particularly those living in a minority environment.

The Commission is convinced that the rapid introduction of digital technologies provides an important opportunity to substantially increase the choice to consumers of French- and English-language broadcasting services. It has opted for a forward-looking approach whose ultimate goal is to provide all Canadians with access to all Canadian, English- and French-language specialty services, and at least one pay television service, but excluding Category 2 digital specialty services and pay-per-view services. Ultimately, however, the Commission's policy leaves it in the hands of the Canadian consumer to decide whether or not to subscribe to these services. The Commission's approach includes transitional measures to allow for the progressive deployment of digital technology, especially by small cable operators, while taking into account the current realities of analog distribution.

If the Commission is to ensure that broadcasting services better reflect the realities of Francophone minorities and are available to Francophone audiences across Canada, it considers that several measures must be taken, including increased efforts by public and private conventional, educational, community and specialty broadcasters to improve on-air reflection through increased production of quality programming. This report sets out a number of measures intended to achieve this objective.

In the consultations, parties stressed the importance of public and community radio in reflecting their communities. The report acknowledges the role of radio within these communities and proposes several measures and avenues for exploration.

The report also looks at the future of new media. Noting the increasing growth of Internet access and high-speed transmission, the Commission is confident that, in future, Francophone communities in urban or rural minority situations will have greater access to this means of distribution to complement French-language conventional broadcasting services.

Appendix 1 to this report lists all proposed measures. Today, the Commission has also issued Public Notice CRTC 2001-26 (see Appendix 2). This public notice sets out the policy adopted by the Commission further to Public Notice CRTC 2000-38. The objective of the policy is to increase the availability of minority official language specialty services to cable subscribers.

 

Introduction

 1.

On 5 April 2000, following publication of the Commission's initiative to increase the availability of minority official language specialty services to cable subscribers (Public Notice CRTC 2000-38 dated 10 March 2000), the Governor General in Council requested the Commission, in Order in Council P.C. 2000-511 (see Appendix 3), to take this process further.

 2.

In that Order in Council, the Governor in Council:

 
  • assigns high priority to the fact that the presence of French-language broadcasting services in the French linguistic minority communities in Canada contributes not only to the vitality and development of the Francophone communities, but also responds to the needs of all Canadians who wish to attain a better understanding of both official languages;
 
  • requests the Commission to seek comments from the public and to report on all French-language broadcasting services provided in French linguistic minority communities in Canada with a view to :
 

(a) assessing the availability and the quality of French-language broadcasting services in the French linguistic minority communities in Canada;

 

(b) identifying any deficiencies and challenges in the above communities to the provision of public, private and community French-language broadcasting services - radio, television, specialty, pay and pay-per-view services - and the availability of French-language broadcasting services on the various broadcasting distribution systems; and

 

(c) proposing measures to encourage and facilitate access to the widest range of French-language broadcasting services possible in these communities and to ensure that the diversity of French-language communities across Canada is reflected in the Canadian broadcasting system.

 3.

Because the objectives of the March 2000 policy proposal concerning the availability of minority official language specialty services to cable subscribers complement the issues raised by the government's Order in Council, the Commission decided it would be appropriate to combine the two processes and, therefore, initiated a broad consultative process on these two subjects.

 4.

The Commission initially received more than one hundred submissions, comments and email messages from individuals and associations representing Francophones and Francophiles of all ages, as well as from broadcasters and broadcasting distribution undertakings. (A list of those who appeared at the 18 October hearing is contained in Appendix 4.)

 5.

To allow as many people as possible to submit their comments, the Commission held a series of public consultations in 11 Canadian cities, from Halifax to Vancouver, during September and October 2000 (a list of cities and dates appears in Appendix 4). A total of nine Commission members participated in one or other of these consultations. The public process was concluded by a public hearing held on 18 October 2000 in the National Capital Region.

 6.

The comments contained in the submissions and made during the consultations with interveners and associations representing Francophones and Francophiles can be generally categorized under the following themes:

 
  • There is a need for access to a greater number of French-language broadcasting services in the communities where Francophones are a minority. A number of interveners suggested that any remedy to this situation should take into account the constitutional and legal realities relating to Canada's two official languages. As pointed out in particular by the Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada (FCFA) at the public hearing, [translation] "among the services that are essential for the promotion of French language and culture beyond Quebec's borders, we must obviously count the electronic media, specifically television and radio". The interventions dealt mostly with the availability of television services.
 
  • A few interveners expressed their opposition to any extension of French-language broadcasting services; they were especially concerned that all subscribers might have to assume the financial burden of offering additional French-language services not consistent with the needs of the majority.
 
  • A number of interveners argued that the transition from analog to digital distribution is currently transforming the Canadian broadcasting system and opening up new prospects for Francophones in minority situations. In their opinion, this is a unique opportunity to address the deficiencies of analog distribution, which, by the way it has been deployed and by its limited channel capacity, appears to have slowed access, over the years, to a larger number of French-language services in minority communities.
 
  • Dyane Adam, the Commissioner of Official Languages, stated at the public hearing that, [translation] "in this digital world, with its greater capacity for the distribution of services, all French-language services should eventually be offered across Canada."
 
  • Along the same lines, the Specialty and Premium Television Association (SPTV) recommended that, [translation] "in a digital context, all broadcasting undertakings be required, like satellite undertakings, to distribute all Canadian analog and digital Category 1 official language specialty and pay services, and at least one pay-per-view television service in each official language as a priority over any new foreign service."
 
  • For their part, the associations representing cable distribution undertakings supported the main principles and objectives stated in the Order in Council. They generally backed the policy proposed by the Commission in PN CRTC 2000-38, while suggesting changes based on financial, technical, administrative and regulatory considerations related to its implementation.
 

Trends in the use of French in Canada

 7.

Recognizing the important role played by broadcasting in ensuring the vitality of the French language in Canada, the Commission has undertaken an examination of how French-language broadcasting has developed in provinces with Anglophone majorities.

 8.

The data collected in the most recent Canadian census (1996) show that, in general, the number of persons outside Quebec with a knowledge of the French-language is increasing, as indicated in the following table.

Province or
Territory

Total 1991
knowledge of French

Total 1996
knowledge of French

Percentage increase knowledge of French from 1991 to 1996

Percentage increase total population from 1991 to 1996

Newfoundland

18,735

21,415

14.3%

-2.9%

Prince Edward Island

13,225

14,740

11.5%

3.7%

Nova Scotia

78,050

85,350

9.4%

1.0%

New Brunswick

301,030

311,175

3.4%

2.0%

Ontario

1,190,485

1,281,835

7.7%

6.6%

Manitoba

100,700

104,635

3.9%

2.0%

Saskatchewan

51,245

51,115

-0.3%

0.1%

Alberta

169,095

180,120

6.5%

5.9%

British Columbia

208,315

250,365

20.2%

13.5%

Yukon

2,595

3,260

25.6%

10.7%

Northwest Territories

3,575

4,080

14.1%

11.7%

Total outside Quebec

2,137,050

2,308,090

8.0%

6.4%

Quebec

6,371,910

6,612,300

3.8%

3.5%

Total - Quebec + outside Quebec

8,508,960

8,920,390

4.8%

 

Total population

27,296,859

28,846,761

 

5.7%

% of total population

31.2%

30.9%

 

N/A

Source: Statistics Canada, population census: 1991 and 1996

 

9.

The table indicates that:

 
  • In 1996, the number of persons having a knowledge of French, was 8.9 million, or 30.9% of Canada's population. More than three-quarters (76%) of those having a knowledge of French but who reside outside Quebec, live in New Brunswick and Ontario.
 
  • In proportional terms, between 1991 and 1996, the percentage increase in the number of persons outside Quebec having a knowledge of the French language (8%) was higher than the total increase in the population of Canada (5.7%).
 
  • The second highest increase in the number of persons having a knowledge of French was in British Columbia, an increase of 42,050, or 20.2% since 1991.
10.

The British Columbia section of Canadian Parents for French, during the public consultation in Vancouver on 21 September 2000, emphasized the consistent increase over time in the number of persons within the province who have a knowledge of French. It added that the large number of those who are learning French through immersion classes at the primary and secondary school level is a manifestation of a significant and very real market in British Columbia for more French-language broadcasting services.

11.

The Commissioner of Official Languages stated at the hearing that [translation] "the constant increase in the number of Canadians claiming to have a knowledge of French suggests there is a growing potential demand for French-language radio and television programming in several areas of Canada."

 

Framework of the Commission's examination

12.

The broadcasting policy for Canada set out in section 3 of the Broadcasting Act provides that the Canadian broadcasting system should reflect Canada's linguistic duality and cultural diversity. This section defines the Commission's mandate. It serves as the framework within which the Commission performs its regulatory and public policy functions. The basic cultural objectives set out in the Act include the following statements in section 3(1):

 
  • a range of broadcasting services in English and in French shall be extended to all Canadians as resources become available;
 
  • the programming provided by the Canadian broadcasting system should . be drawn from local, regional, national and international sources;
 
  • English and French language broadcasting, while sharing common aspects, operate under different conditions and may have different requirements.
13.

The Act also provides that the Canadian broadcasting system should be regulated and supervised in a manner flexible enough to adapt to scientific and technological change [section 5(2)]. The Act further stipulates that distribution undertakings should give priority to the carriage of Canadian programming services [section 3(1)].

14.

The Commission's decisions attempt to reconcile the cultural objectives stated in the Act and the realities of life across Canada. In recent years, a number of its decisions have been addressed to the French linguistic minority communities of Canada. Measures taken by the Commission include:

 
  • introduction of direct-to-home satellite distribution (DTH) in 1997, which has made all English- and French-language specialty television services available across Canada;
 
  • mandating the national distribution of the TVA television network in October 1998; the decision noted TVA's commitment to reflect the reality and expectations of Francophone communities outside Quebec;
 
  • licensing of a new French-language arts and culture specialty television service, "Télé des Arts", in September 2000; the decision stipulated that this service should take into account the unique character of Quebec culture and the needs and circumstances of French-language communities in other parts of Canada;
 
  • authorization in November 2000 of five new French-language category 1 specialty television services to be distributed on a digital basis.
15.

This report presents the detailed findings of the Commission based on its consultations held across Canada; provides its responses to the major issues raised by the Governor in Council; and sets forth the considerations and challenges that, in the Commission's view, relate to the availability and quality of broadcasting services in the French linguistic minority communities in Canada. Further, it describes a set of measures and recommendations for facilitating access to the widest possible range of services, while ensuring that these services reflect the diversity of French-language communities across the country.

16.

In addition, this report refers to the policy, adopted by the Commission pursuant to PN CRTC 2000-38 and made public today, for increasing the availability of minority official language specialty services to cable subscribers (see copy of Public Notice CRTC 2001-26 in Appendix 2).

17.

The Commission's mandate is to regulate and supervise all sectors of the Canadian broadcasting system, while taking into account the special characteristics of each. Accordingly, the report includes separate observations and comments for the television, distribution and radio sectors. One section of the report also deals with the new media. The Commission's preferred approach is to take the greatest possible advantage of the transition from analog to digital technology currently under way in the broadcasting distribution industry, in order to ensure, from the outset of that transition, greater availability of French-language services to Francophone minorities.

 


Section 1: Availability of television programming services

18.

This section provides an overview of the current availability of French-language television services in Canada. The overall number of French-language broadcasting services has grown significantly in the last 15 years. Access to these services, however, has been greatest in Quebec, where the market is largest.

19.

The following table shows the growth over the years in the number of Canadian French-language services available in Canada by type of broadcasting licence (national public network, national private network, provincial educational networks, specialty services, pay services, and pay-per-view services).

 

Table 1.1: Number of Canadian French-language services

 

Type of licence

1985

1990

1995

2000

CBC public network

1

1

1

1

TVA private network*

-

-

-

1

Educational**

1

2

2

2

Specialty services

-

5

7

16

Pay/pay-per-view

1

1

1

2

Total

3

9

11

22

* TVA is added in 2000 with the decision for its national distribution.
**Educational services: indicates the point at which the service under the jurisdiction of the Quebec or Ontario provincial education authority was regularly broadcast in its province of origin.

 

20. In French linguistic minority communities outside Quebec, the availability of services has increased considerably with the introduction of more direct-to-home satellite (DTH) services. However, service offerings remain limited on cable. Cable technology serves over 93% of Canadian subscribers and continues to be the principal means of distribution, particularly in the analog mode.
21. The problem was clearly expressed at the public consultations held in the fall of 2000. The situation outside Quebec was then defined as being more a problem of distribution than of the availability of French-language services. Although the recent licensing of TVA for national distribution has helped to improve the situation, Francophones and Francophiles living in minority communities continue to have limited access to the French-language broadcasting services available in Quebec, unless they subscribe to DTH services.
22. The following table shows the average number of services generally offered to Francophones outside Quebec by cable distributors.
 

Table 1.2: French-language programming service offering outside Quebec: analog distribution mode (cable)

 

Type of licence

1985

1990

1995

2000

CBC public network

1

1

1

1

TVA private network

-

-

-

1

Educational

1

1

1

1

Specialty services*

-

2

2

2

Pay/pay-per-view

-

-

-

-

Total

2

4

4

5

*RDI and TV5 were and still are the only two specialty services with significant distribution, i.e., approximately five million homes outside Quebec.

 

23. The table below shows Canadian French-language specialty services and the year in which they commenced operations:
 

Table 1.3: French-language specialty services and the year they became available

 

1988

1989

1995

1997

2000

Canal Famille RDS Canal D Le Canal Nouvelles Séries + (Canal Fiction)
Musique Plus   RDI Canal Vie Canal Z, aux limites du savoir
TV5     Teletoon (F) Historia (Canal Histoire)
Météomédia     Musimax Canal Évasion
Télé des Arts*
*service licensed but not yet available.

 

24. Under existing regulations, DTH services are required to distribute all licensed French- and English-language specialty services. That fact, and the introduction of digital cable distribution in a limited number of cities such as Ottawa and Toronto, where more French-language services are available, explains the slight increase in the availability, outside Quebec, of services other than TV5 and RDI.
 

Table 1.4: Current distribution of main French-language specialty services by region

 
  Source: Mediastats June 2000
 
  • This table shows that RDI and TV5 are widely distributed on cable across Canada even though the current regulations do not require national distribution.
 
  • There are other French-language television services, such as Canal Nouvelles, Canal Vie, Musimax, Teletoon, Canal Z, Évasion, Historia and Séries Plus. Distribution of those services across Canada ranges from 6,747 to 68,127 subscribers.
25. The following table shows the number of French-language digital specialty services that will be offered pursuant to CRTC licensing decisions in November 2000, and compares these with the number of all English-language, bilingual (French/English) and ethnic services (generally in languages other than French or English) that were also licensed at that time. It should be noted that only Category 1 digital specialty services must be distributed by broadcasting distribution undertakings.
 

Table 1.5: All specialty services, including those licensed in 2000

 
 

French

English

Bilingual

Ethnic

Analog specialty

16

29

---

5

Cat. 1 digital specialty

5

16

---

---

Sub-total

21

45

 

5

Cat. 2 digital specialty*

19

186

6

42

Total

40

231

6

47

* Canadian Category 2 digital specialty services are not guaranteed access to digital distribution, and some of them may therefore not be launched.

 

Section 2: Distribution of French-language broadcasting services
Availability
26. One of the major themes raised by participants during the consultations was their need to have access to a greater number of French-language broadcasting services on cable. As shown in Tables 2.1 and 2.2, more than 93% of Canadian subscribers receive their programming services by cable.

Table 2.1: All subscribers across Canada by type of distribution undertaking

 

Number of basic subscribers

Distribution type

1996

1997

1998

1999

Class 1 cable distributors
(6,000 or more subscribers)

6,728,598

6,801,227

6,866,793

6,925,540

Class 2 cable distributors
(2,000 to 6,000 subscribers)

402,396

402,390

411,595

373,160

Class 3 cable distributors
(fewer than 2,000 subscribers)

720,822

729,695

711,752

727,665

Digital multipoint distribution systems (MDS)

446

3,912

10,894

31,489

Direct-to-home (DTH)

N/A

N/A

216,111

519,376

Subscription television (STV)

6,037

5,573

4,848

3,882

Total

7,858,299

7,942,797

8,221,993

8,581,112

Source: CRTC Financial Summary Reports, 14 September 2000

 

  • Table 2.1 reveals that the broadcasting distribution industry has enjoyed stable overall growth since 1996, with particularly strong growth in 1999 in the form of about 360,000 new subscribers.
  • The direct-to-home (DTH) industry accounted for 85% of the increase in total subscriptions in 1999.

Table 2.2: Percentage breakdown of all subscribers across Canada by type of distribution

 

Market share by distribution type (%)

Distribution type

1996

1997

1998

1999

Class 1 cable distributors (6,000 or more subscribers)

85.6

85.6

83.5

80.7

Class 2 cable distributors (2,000 to 6,000 subscribers)

5.1

5.1

5.0

4.3

Class 3 cable distributors (fewer than 2,000 subscribers)

9.2

9.2

8.7

8.5

Digital multipoint distribution systems (MDS)

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.4

Direct-to-home (DTH)

N/A

N/A

2.6

6.0

Subscription television (STV)

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: CRTC Financial Summary Reports, 28 June 2000

 

 
  • Cable subscribers account for a total of 93.5% of all BDU subscribers across Canada.
  • Class 1 broadcasting distribution undertakings retain the bulk of all subscribers, although the percentage is decreasing. Class 1 market share has fallen by almost 5% since the introduction of DTH and MDS services (direct-to-home and digital multipoint distribution systems).
  • Market share for DTH services grew by 3.4% of total subscribers in 1999 to achieve a share of 6% after only two years of operation.
27.

The Commission notes that the arrival of DTH services in 1997 made all specialty television services in both official languages available across Canada. However, certain viewers, because of their place of residence, line of sight problems, regulation of multi-unit dwellings, or other constraints are not able to access DTH service.

28.

As shown in section 1 on the availability of television programming services, the number of broadcasting services has been increasing for 15 years. While acknowledging that cable distributors in Canada offer their subscribers a large number of specialty television services, the Commission finds that the number of specialty services provided in the minority official language is often limited other than in Quebec.

 

Comments

29.

This section of the report will first discuss digital distribution, and then deal with the issues related to conventional analog distribution.

 

Introduction of digital distribution

30.

One of the major themes raised during the consultations and at the public hearing was the arrival of digital cable distribution and the opportunities afforded by this technology, as already demonstrated by DTH services. The Specialty and Premium Television Association (SPTV), for example, noted that [translation] "the Commission has an unexpected and historic opportunity at this time to implement our recommendation, an opportunity which, if not seized immediately, will likely never be repeated." It went on to note that, in late 2000, the Commission would be licensing Canadian Category 1 and Category 2 specialty services, as well as authorizing the distribution of additional foreign services, probably in significant numbers. It is thus important, in its view, to establish rules now for the distribution of French-language services.

31.

In its submission to the Commission at the hearing, the Canadian Cable Television Association (CCTA) stated that, [translation] "ideally, CCTA members would like to offer all licensed services, English and French, to their subscribers in order to provide the richest array of programming choices." In its written brief, while suggesting changes to the policy proposed in PN 2000-38 based on financial, technical, administrative, and regulatory consideration, it added:

 

CCTA considers that its members are generally providing a range of French language analog services appropriate to the demographics and needs of Francophone minorities within their service territories. CCTA nevertheless supports the objective of providing more such services provided there is sufficient demand for them.

 

CCTA considers that, subject to certain qualifications, the policies proposed in Public Notice CRTC 2000-38 to increase the availability of services to both French and English minority groups represented a realistic approach. The approach recognized the limitations of analog distribution and produced a reasonable ratio for the carriage of such services in a digital mode.

32.

During the consultations, Ontario Francophones acknowledged the efforts made by Rogers Ottawa Limited in providing all available French-language services in its digital tier. At the public hearing, Rogers' representative indicated that the communities of Collingwood, Owen Sound and Midland, which includes the strongly Francophone community of Penetanguishene, are served by cable systems having limited bandwidth (550 MHz) and limited bi-directional capacity. This restricts the number of French-language services that can be made available to Francophones living in these communities. Rogers further added that the upgrades of these cable systems are well underway and that it believed that all Francophones served by Rogers in Ontario could, in the very near future, have access to the same line-up of French-language services that is available to Ottawa subscribers.

33.

The Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada emphasized that [translation] "such access to digital television is all the more important because we are witnessing.a convergence in the world of communications. .Francophones do not want to be excluded from the positive spin-off from this convergence, especially with regard to the information highway. They want to feel that they too belong to the most connected nation of the world, and digital television is an open door to this technology."

34.

A number of other representatives of Francophone associations linked the future of their communities to their access to French-language television and radio. For example, at the public consultation of 10 October in Dieppe, New Brunswick, the Société des Acadiens et Acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick stated: [translation] ".if nothing is done to provide access for Acadian and Francophone communities across Canada to diversified, high-quality broadcasting services that can compete with the host of services we currently receive from English Canada and the United States, then our struggle today to ensure the survival of life in French in North America is futile."

35.

Some interveners also recalled that the Broadcasting Act, which governs the CRTC, stipulates that "a range of broadcasting services in English and in French shall be extended to all Canadians as resources become available". According to these interveners, digital technology irrefutably offers precisely the "resources" that would allow universal access to broadcasting in both of Canada's official languages.

 

The language criterion

36.

It is the opinion of several associations and individuals who took part in the public consultations on this subject that determining the audience who should have access to French-language broadcasting services is the key element of any initiative to increase the availability of such services.

37.

In PN CRTC 2000-38, the Commission proposed that the compulsory application of its policy would be limited to undertakings whose licensed area is in a market where the number of people having a knowledge of the minority official language amounts to at least 5,000 or 10% of the market's total population. The Commission received a number of comments proposing amendments to this approach. Several interveners suggested that any mathematical criterion be discarded outright in determining the audience entitled to French-language services. A number suggested that the Commission should adopt an approach offering equitable treatment to all Francophones living outside Quebec. The CCTA proposed that, in order to obtain a better indication of the demand, a criterion should be used that is based on the number of persons for whom French is the first official language that they speak.

38.

Francophiles indicated that they, too, would like access to more French-language services. In its intervention at the public consultation of 4 October in St. Boniface, the Manitoba section of Canadian Parents for French emphasized that students wishing to learn French are often deprived of French-language television and radio programs, depending on where they live. For this reason, interveners stated that the Commission should ensure that French-language broadcasting services are available throughout Manitoba.

 

SPTV proposal

39.

The SPTV concluded that the diversity of opinions, [translation] "even among those who support this proposal (by the CRTC), demonstrates that no formula has unanimous approval or unites a majority of interveners." It added that "... the basic effect of any formula, from the outset, would be to deprive many Francophones and Francophiles across Canada of any regulatory support for access to French-language specialty services in digital mode."

40.

The SPTV therefore recommended: [translation]

 

In a digital world, all terrestrial distribution undertakings should be required, just as satellite undertakings are, to distribute all Canadian analog and digital Category 1 official-language specialty and pay television services, and at least one pay-per-view television service in each official language, as a priority over any new foreign service.

41.

According to the SPTV, this approach would be more equitable, because all digital distribution undertakings, whether terrestrial or satellite, would be required to meet the same regulatory obligations. All Canadians in a minority official language situation would thus have access to more programming services in their mother tongue, and everyone who has a knowledge of the second official language could benefit from additional programming services.

 

Class 3 distribution undertakings

42.

Most associations representing Francophones outside Quebec, and many individuals, expressed concern that the Commission's proposed policy set out in PN 2000-38 would not apply to Class 3 distribution undertakings. Such undertakings generally serve fewer than2,000 subscribers.

43.

It was pointed out that these small undertakings often serve areas that include a high percentage of Francophones, a reality that is not always taken into account by distributors. The Commission notes that more than 20% of all Class 3 distribution undertakings serve communities in which at least 10% of the population have a knowledge of the French language.

44.

For example, during the public consultation of 12 October in Halifax, the Fédération acadienne de la Nouvelle-Écosse stressed that [translation] ".in the case of most of our Acadian communities in Nova Scotia, the cable distributors tend to be small, rural operators and do not provide a full service; they do not offer most of the French-language services in our areas."

 

Analysis

 

The way of the future: distribution in digital mode

45.

In its consideration of the French-language broadcasting services currently offered in French linguistic minority communities, and in reaching its decisions on the means to increase the availability of services to official language minorities in Canada, the CRTC has followed these principles:

 
  • compliance with the requirement of section 3(1)(k) of the Broadcasting Act, which stipulates that "a range of broadcasting services in English and in French shall be extended to all Canadians as resources become available;"
  • the simultaneous implementation of two objectives - achievement of the desired final result and definition of an effective transitional model that meets the needs of official language minority communities;
  • the establishment, from the outset, of a clear understanding among distributors of what their obligations will become in the future, as they move toward distribution in digital mode and their distribution capacity increases; and
  • the choice of whether or not to subcribe to services must remain with the consumer.
46.

While maintaining these basic principles, the Commission, throughout its consultations, analysis and decision-making with respect to this report, has taken into account the rapidly changing broadcasting environment.

47.

Of all the structural and technological developments that continue to transform Canadian broadcasting, the widespread introduction of digital distribution is undoubtedly the one having the greatest impact on Canadian viewers and listeners today, and this impact will continue to be felt for a long time to come.

48.

As most interveners emphasized during the proceedings, the adoption of digital technology allows distribution undertakings to make more efficient these of their capacity through digital compression, thereby giving distributors the ability to provide more French-language services to French linguistic minority communities.

49.

The Commission notes that a bandwidth of 750 MHz nominal corresponds to 110 analog channels. In digital mode, given the current average compression ratio of 1:8, this transmission capacity enables a distributor to offer about 77 analog channels, and 200 to 250 digital video channels, in addition to digital audio channels and access to the Internet. A bandwidth of 550 MHz nominal corresponds to 77 analog channels. On average, distributors use 70 of these channels to distribute signals in analog mode, leaving them a capacity to distribute an additional 30 to 50 digital video channels, in addition to the digital audio channels and the Internet.

50.

The Commission first took note of this move toward digital distribution several years ago, and has actively encouraged it through its regulatory decisions. It has made digital distribution the foundation of its proposed policy on minority official language broadcasting services (PN CRTC 2000-38).

51.

The following tables show the number of current digital subscribers, as well as the forecasts for future growth. The cable and satellite distribution industry is expecting a marked increase in the number of subscribers to digital service over the next four years.

 

Table 2.3: Digital cable subscriber projections in Canada

 
 

Digital cable market

 

Number of digital subscribers

Households having digital capacity

Capacity as a % of basic subcribers

Forecast period

Pessimistic

Optimistic

English

French

English

French

January 2000

   

4,104,474

1,233,600

69

65

September 2001

486,486

1,066,316

4,888,056

1,373,650

82

72

September 2003

872,258

1,802,548

5,199,786

1,449,500

86

72

September 2005

1,269,997

2,536,394

5,366,258

1,533,670

88

78

Source: Long Range Digital Forecast for Cable Distribution Undertakings, CCTA, 10 March 2000

 

Table 2.4: Direct-to-home (DTH) subscriber projections in Canada

 
 

Subscribers to licensed DTH service providers

Forecast period

Bell ExpressVu & Star Choice

English-language

French-language

31 December 2000

1.2 million

85%

15%

31 December 2001

1.8 million

85%

15%

31 December 2002

2.1 million

85%

15%

31 December 2004

2.4 million

85%

15%

Source: Bell ExpressVu Ltd., March 2000

 

Table 2.5: Digital multipoint distribution system (MDS) subscriber projections

 
 

Multipoint distribution system market - English and French

 

September 2001

September 2003

September 2005

MDS subscribers

156,000

234,000

312,000

Source: Price Waterhouse Cooper study filed by Craig Broadcast Systems Inc. with "The Met" application.

 

52.

The SPTV proposal, which it described as being [translation] "based on a national rather than a local perspective", received the support of many participants in the consultation process. The Commission agrees that the model proposed by the SPTV is simpler and easier to implement than the one the Commission had, itself, proposed in PN CRTC 2000-38. It is also more in line with the Commission's objective of promoting universal access to French-language broadcasting services as required by section 3(1)(k) of the Broadcasting Act. However, it raises certain technical concerns with respect to its implementation. These include the following:

 
  • There are certain practical considerations linked to the implemementation of digital technology. For distributors, there are several methods of offering digital services to their subscribers and several levels of digital capacity. These depend on various factors, including the current state of upgrade of the undertaking, the number of available analog channels that can be changed to digital and the method used to provide the digital channels.
 
  • The impact on Class 3 distribution undertakings, particularly those that do not belong to large corporate groups, could be significant. Currently, the distribution obligations imposed on Class 3 undertakings are minimal, and are limited to the distribution of local and regional stations.
 
  • Certain technical limitations have also been raised, particularly by the CCTA, which emphasized that the capacity to distribute additional channels depends largely on the technology used. The CCTA noted that, in its decision licensing new digital specialty services, the Commission indicated that it would require carriage of a certain number of services on digital. It was of the opinion that, under such a requirement, the available transmission capacity of certain undertakings for other services could be seriously limited.
53.

After considering the matters set out above, the Commission has adopted the following policy approach:

 

a) Licensees of distribution undertakings serving more than 2,000 subscribers and using high-capacity digital technology (750 MHz nominal or more) will be required to offer all English-language and French-language Canadian specialty services and at least one pay television service, but not Category 2 digital specialty services or pay-per-view television services.

 

Individual services need only be offered once. If a service is offered on analog, it need not also be offered on digital.

 

The Commission notes the fact that category 2 specialty services and pay-per-view television services do not have guaranteed access to digital distribution (see Public Notices CRTC 2000-6 and CRTC 2000-171). It also notes the substantial capacity that would be required to distribute all of these services. Accordingly, the Commission has not included these services with those that must be distributed.

 

b) Licensees serving more than 2,000 subscribers and using digital technology of lower capacity (less than 750 MHz nominal) will be required to distribute at least one Canadian specialty service in the minority official language for every 10 programming services (Canadian and non-Canadian) distributed in the majority official language.

54.

The Commission emphasizes that the obligation imposed on the licensees to offer services places no obligation on subscribers to subscribe to them. The Commission considers that the choice of whether or not to subscribe to services must remain with the consumer.

55.

The Commission's policy offers the following features:

 
  • consideration will be given to the various levels of technology used by distributors;
  • the ultimate objective of making all Canadian specialty services in both official languages available to the largest practicable number of subscribers will be achieved;
  • access to all official language programming services for all Canadians;
  • extension of the distribution of minority-language services to all localities in which digital distribution is offered;
  • equal application to English-language and French-language markets;
  • a two-stage implementation process giving distributors the time needed to increase their transmission capacity; and
  • removal of administrative problems related to the language criterion.
56.

The Commission notes that, in the large markets where this technology is now widely available (Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver), implementation of this policy means that subscribers will be able to receive all 21 French-language specialty services (including the Category 1 services recently licensed for digital distribution), in addition to the conventional television services they already receive.

57.

In PN 2000-38, the Commission raised the possibility of according the Ottawa region special status as the national capital. As noted earlier, from the time they introduced digital service, local cable operators have distributed all available French-language services. In addition, given that the new policy expanding the service offering will also apply in this region, the Commission considers that it will be unnecessary to establish other measures for the Ottawa region.

58.

The complete text of the Commission's policy and the details of its implementation are provided in Appendix 2. The Commission intends to amend its regulations to implement the policy on 1 September 2001.

 

Approach for Class 3 distribution undertakings

59.

In its original policy proposal (PN 2000-38), the Commission acknowledged that there are some Class 3 cable licensees who are deploying digital capacity, and whose licensed areas include significant numbers of people having a knowledge of the minority official language. Nevertheless, it proposed to exempt these undertakings from its general policy on French-language broadcasting services in minority communities. A number of interveners expressed their concern about this approach.

60.

Small distribution undertakings within the broadcasting system face some very particular circumstances. Across Canada, there were 1,755 Class 3 undertakings in 1999, of which 1,416 undertakings were outside Quebec. Class 3 undertakings make up 86% of all undertakings, but account for only about 9% of subscribers. In contrast, Class 1 undertakings represent only 8% of all undertakings, but account for 86% of all subscribers.

61.

There is also a pronounced variation in the incremental cost per subscriber of adding a service, depending on the size of the undertaking. As noted in the submission of 18 October by the Canadian Cable Systems Alliance (CCSA): "A 100,000 subscriber system can add a new channel for a few pennies per subscriber. A 1,000 subscriber system will spend in the range of $5 per subscriber to add the same signal, and a 300 subscriber system could spend between $16 and $17 per subscriber to add the same signal."

62.

After weighing the earlier considerations and noting the urgent requests of a number of Francophone and Francophile interveners at the public consultations, the Commission has amended its original proposal concerning Class 3 undertakings. In addition, this new approach takes into account the principles listed in paragraph 45, which have guided the Commission in its deliberations. Although the Commission is imposing certain requirements on these undertakings, the approach is tailored to take their small size into account.

63.

All licensees of Class 3 undertakings that use digital technology of a capacity of 550 MHz nominal or more, will be required to distribute at least one Canadian specialty service in the minority official language for every 10 programming services (Canadian and non-Canadian) distributed in the majority official language (Class 3 undertakings generally serve fewer than 2,000 subscribers.)

64.

Furthermore, a Class 3 system that is fully interconnected to another system will be required to provide the same number of minority official language services as the system to which it is interconnected, unless it does not have the capacity to do so.

65.

The Commission notes that, in the case of most Canadians who want access to all French-language services, but who are served by cable systems having a capacity of less than 550 MHz, subscribing to a DTH distribution undertaking remains an alternative.

66.

Conversion to digital represents a challenge for small cable systems. Moreover, a large number of communities with Francophone minorities are served by this type of undertaking operating with analog technology. The Commission thus considers that discussions among operators of these small systems, the communities involved and concerned Francophone associations might provide an opportunity to increase the number of French-language services offered. Members of the Commission would be prepared to participate in such discussions.

 

Accessibility at a moderate cost

67.

One of the subjects related to the distribution of French-language specialty services across Canada was availability of services to subscribers at a moderate cost. Distributors and operators of programming services expressed their concerns about the negotiation of wholesale rates and the price of discretionary service packages. The Commission notes the statements in this regard by SPTV and Groupe de radiodiffusion Astral inc., indicating that the wholesale rates they offer to distributors outside their main language markets are generally between 10% and 15% of the rates offered per subscriber in their main markets, and that this approach will be maintained in the future. The Commission expects distribution undertakings to ensure that specialty services are delivered to subscribers at affordable rates, in compliance with section 3(1)(t)(ii) of the Act, and are packaged in a manner that reflects the needs of official language minorities. To this end, the Commission further expects specialty services to apply wholesale rates that are consistent with those proposed at the hearing.

 

Distribution in analog mode

68.

Although most interventions focused on the possibilities offered by digital distribution, some interveners also stressed the need, as outlined in the Commission's proposed policy, to make changes to the current requirements for distribution in analog.

69.

In fact, in its proposed policy (PN 2000-38), the Commission stated that it would not allow cable distributors to reduce the number of French-language services provided in analog. Various groups, particularly the SPTV and the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB), which represents most private television and radio stations in Canada, asked that cable distributors not only be required to continue to distribute the same number of French-language services in analog, but that they be prohibited from displacing French-language services that they already distribute.

70.

The CCTA and Rogers Cable Inc. argued that the freeze proposed by the Commission on any reduction in the number of French-language services currently distributed in analog in Anglophone markets should not apply to discretionary services.

71.

Other interveners requested that a minimum number of French-language services, particularly RDI, CBC, TVA, TV5 and TFO, be included in the basic service of all cable distribution undertakings outside Quebec, since digital technology is not readily available in all communities.

72.

At the consultations held in Halifax, Eastlink Limited suggested the possibility of moving two French-language services now offered in analog mode to a digital tier thereby creating the capacity to offer more French-language services on digital.

73.

The Commission considers that, in the short term, the majority of cable programming services will continue to be provided in analog mode. Accordingly, the Commission has decided not to permit any reduction in the number of French-language services distributed on analog channels in Anglophone markets. All Class 1 and 2 cable systems in Anglophone markets will be required to provide, in analog mode, the same number of Canadian French-language services as that being distributed on analog channels on 10 March 2000 (PN 2000-38).

74.

The Commission notes that a public process is underway (Public Notice CRTC 2000-113) that deals with migration issues in markets other than French-language minority markets.

 

Public television

75.

In the context of this process, the CBC noted that Class 3 distribution undertakings are not required to offer the Corporation's French-language conventional television service. The CBC asked the Commission to change its approach and to require that all Class 3 distributors provide at least one of the CBC's signals on the basic service.

76.

Currently, all cable undertakings that serve more than 2,000 subscribers, as well as all DTH undertakings, are required by regulation to distribute at least one signal of the Corporation's English-language service and one signal of its French-language service. Cable licensees serving fewer than 2,000 subscribers are currently only required to distribute the signals of conventional stations that they receive over the air.

77.

The Broadcasting Act stipulates at section 3(1)(m)(vii) that:

 

...the programming provided by the Corporation should...be made available throughout Canada by the most appropriate and efficient means and as resources become available for the purpose.

78.

At the hearing, discussion centred on the technical aspects of distributing the CBC French-language service, the costs of adding the service on distribution undertakings that do not currently offer this service, and who should be responsible for assuming these costs. The CBC indicated that it would be prepared to pay part of the costs and that it believed the obligation to distribute this service should be shared by all stakeholders in the broadcasting system.

79.

An examination reveals that 663 (37.7%) of the 1,755 Class 3 licensees in Canada do not distribute the CBC's French-language conventional television service, and that 74 (4.2%) of Class 3 licensees do not distribute the CBC's English-language conventional television service.

80.

It is the Commission's view that steps should now be taken to ensure wider distribution of the CBC's conventional services (French and English). The reception of these signals via satellite is now possible across Canada and the related costs have therefore been reduced.

81.

For these reasons, the Commission has decided that: all cable systems will be required to distribute at least one CBC signal in each official language. In accordance with section 3(1)(m)(vii) of the Broadcasting Act, the Commission considers that the Corporation should assume responsibility for delivering its signals to distributors. Once this occurs, i.e. once the signals have been provided to a distributor's head end, then the distributor will be required to deliver these services to its subscribers and assume responsibility for the associated distribution costs. The Commission will amend its regulations and its proposed exemption order policy for certain Class 3 distribution undertakings (Public Notice CRTC 2000-162) to implement this decision.

 

Distribution of Télé des Arts

82.

In its 14 September 2000 decision licensing Télé des Arts, the Commission indicated that the service should take into account the unique character of Quebec culture and the needs and circumstances of French-language communities in other parts of Canada.

83.

In Public Notice CRTC 2000-74-2, the Commission asked the following question:

 

In the context of the proposed policy to increase the availability of specialty services in markets where the minority language is French, should the Commission grant priority status to the distribution of Télé des Arts?

84.

This specific question gave rise to relatively few comments. In general, most of groups representing Francophones and Francophiles and the individuals who participated in the public consultation process proposed that all specialty services be distributed in digital mode.

85.

The Commission emphasizes that one of the conditions of licence imposed on Télé des Arts stipulates that the service must be made available free of charge to cable distributors who distribute the service on an analog basis in Anglophone markets. The Commission encourages cable distributors to offer the service. Moreover, the Commission notes that its new policy should result in wider distribution of all specialty services in digital mode.

86.

As stipulated in the decision relating to this service, the Commission will also ensure that analog distribution of the Télé des Arts service in Anglophone markets increases the total offering of French-language services in those markets. Accordingly, the Commission stated its expectation that French-language services already offered in analog mode not be displaced by the addition of Télé des Arts.

 

Distribution of RDI

87.

In its intervention, the CBC made the following recommendation regarding distribution of RDI: [translation]

 

..the Commission should require the distribution in analog mode of Le Réseau de l'information by any cable undertaking which does not distribute RDI, if a portion of the population served understands French.

88.

At the hearing, RDI elaborated on this, as follows: [translation]

 

Currently, more than six million Canadian subscribers outside Quebec can receive RDI. This relative success, however, is somewhat attenuated by the fact that 20% of cable subscribers outside Quebec still cannot receive Le Réseau de l'information because their distribution undertaking does not offer it. Yet many of these undertakings serve communities in which Francophones represent a significant proportion of the population.

 

After more than five years of efforts with cable undertakings in the Anglophone markets, its seems that, without other forms of incentives or obligations to do so, those who still do not distribute RDI will continue to deprive many Francophones of the only specialty service providing complete information on the events and issues which concern Francophone communities outside Quebec.

 

Without incentives, the main method of providing equitable access to RDI for Francophones still without this service would be to require its distribution in analog mode.

89.

The Commission has noted the efforts by distributors and RDI to widen the distribution of this service. Its distribution is currently mandatory only for Class 1 systems serving Francophone majority markets. As indicated in the following table, RDI is distributed by most Class 1 distribution undertakings. This is not the case for either Class 1 or Class 2 undertakings. Moreover, the RDI service, with more than six million subscribers, has achieved the widest distribution across Canada of all French-language specialty services.

 

Table 2.6: Distribution of RDI by distribution undertakings in Canada

 

 

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Systems that distribute RDI

122

48

408

Total systems

141

105

1,755

Percentage

86.5 %

45.7 %

23.2 %

Source: Mediastats January 2000.

 

90.

The Commission encourages RDI to continue its efforts to ensure distribution of its service in analog mode. The Commission also encourages distributors to continue providing this service to their subscribers in analog mode or to add the analog distribution of this service if it is not currently being carried. The Commission notes that RDI will also benefit from the measures adopted in the policy on the distribution of digital specialty services described in Appendix 2.

 

Distribution of TVA

91.

In Decision CRTC 98-488, the Commission approved the national distribution of the French-language television service of the TVA network. Class 1 and Class 2 distribution undertakings (including MDS and DTH distribution undertakings) are required to distribute the TVA network signal. Class 3 distribution undertakings are strongly encouraged to do so. The Commission stated that it would be prepared to intervene, if necessary, if licensees of certain Class 3 distribution undertakings were not prepared to offer this service in communities having a significant population of Francophones. The Commission also noted that TVA committed to cooperate with small undertakings in order to lighten the financial burden of distributing this service, notably by providing them with decoders.

92.

As noted above, the Commission has taken measures to ensure the national distribution of the TVA network. This service is currently offered throughout much of Canada. Specifically, it is provided by all licensees serving more than 2,000 subscribers. It is also distributed by 557 (or 31.2%) licensees serving fewer than 2,000 subscribers.

93.

As stated in Decision 98-488, the Commission encourages Class 3 distributors to add TVA to their analog service offering. The Commission emphasizes in this regard that, when distributed on an optional basis, the conventional TVA service can be included in the number of French-language specialty services that are distributed, for the purpose of meeting the required 1:10 minimum ratio.

 

Distribution of CPAC

94.

The Cable Public Affairs Channel (CPAC) is a programming undertaking operated on a not-for-profit basis as a public service and is funded by member companies of the cable distribution industry. CPAC holds a national service licence and has a national mandate, like CBC and RDI. It distributes the proceedings of the House of Commons in accordance with the exemption order set out in Public Notice CRTC 1992-6.

95.

In Decision CRTC 95-22, the Commission stated that CPAC must reflect Canada's dual linguistic nature, present a balance between different points of view and, in particular, represent the various views held by Canadians in the different regions of the country.

96.

One of the issues raised during the consultation is that, when CPAC is distributed, it is very often in its English-language version. The CPAC signal is distributed in three audio modes: English, French and "floor" sound, or language of origination. Distributors thus have a number of options available, one of which is the use of the second audio program (SAP) to distribute the second language of the signal. It should be noted that, in her last report, the Commissioner of Official Languages pointed out that the responsibility for providing the bilingual distribution of the House of Commons proceedings rests with the House. She further indicated, at the hearing, that a review of the situation was in progress.

97.

Concerning distribution of CPAC the Commission expects distributors to provide this service in the majority language in any given market, and also to offer the SAP signal in the minority language where the technology being used makes this possible.

98.

Moreover, the Commission intends to examine the issue of CPAC's distribution further and will shortly initiate a separate process to determine whether the distribution status of CPAC should be changed, in light of its importance in making the proceedings of the House of Commons available to Canadians.

 

Distribution of French-language educational television services

99.

During the consultations, a number of interveners expressed concern about a recent Commission decision that denied the mandatory distribution of TFO, for a subscriber fee, by cable distributors in Quebec. In this regard, the Commission reiterates the statement contained in Decision CRTC 2000-72 that it ". supports the distribution of TFO in Quebec and across Canada on a non-mandatory basis." The TFO service has, for many years, been included on the lists of eligible satellite services, and distribution undertakings may distribute TFO on a discretionary basis, without having to request the Commission's permission. The satellite distribution services of ExpressVu and Star Choice already provide the TFO service across Canada.

100.

At the public hearing, Télé-Québec noted that its wish is to be distributed more broadly across Canada, without charge, in a digital environment. The President of Télé-Québec stated: [translation]

 

As a public educational and cultural broadcaster under the authority of the Quebec government, we understand that it would not be appropriate to require residents outside Quebec to contribute to our funding through compulsory distribution, coupled with a subscription rate, as the Commission itself emphasized in its decision on TFO's application to obtain mandatory tariffed distribution in Quebec. That being acknowledged, we believe that compulsory free distribution of Télé-Québec and TFO in digital mode across Canada would benefit all actors and partners in the French-language broadcasting system. It would also benefit all Francophone communities and all bilingual Canadians, who would receive high-quality French-language educational and cultural services at no extra cost.

 

 ...the free digital distribution of Télé-Québec and TFO could also be beneficial for French-language cable television operators and specialty services, inasmuch as the addition of Télé-Québec and TFO would enhance the French-language service packages offered to subscribers since the average cost per service of these packages would be reduced by the inclusion of two free services.

101.

After reviewing Télé-Québec's proposal, TFO confirmed by letter to the Commission [translation] "that this recommendation does not reflect the position of TVOntario on this issue and should not be used for this purpose." In its letter, TVOntario noted the statement, contained in its earlier submission to the Commission dated 31 August 2000, that it would be logical for its programs to be available to everyone who wanted them, but that there was a need to provide for financial incentives to achieve this.

102

The Commission notes the positions of the two educational broadcasters and, in particular, the offer by Télé-Québec to make its service available without charge. When conventional educational services are distributed in digital mode outside their province of origin, they can be included in calculating the number of French-language services offered for the purpose of meeting the required 1:10 minimum ratio.

 

Other distribution modes

 

The CBC's regional service provided by satellite

103.

The CBC proposed that Star Choice and ExpressVu be required to distribute one signal of its conventional French-language television service from each of Canada's regions. Until recently, ExpressVu provides two signals, from Montréal and Vancouver. Currently Star Choice offers only the one from Montréal. A number of interveners indicated that subscribing to a DTH service often means that a choice must be made between being able to receive local services, with local news, or receiving French-language specialty services of a national nature, since local stations are not generally available on DTH.

104.

The Commission notes that ExpressVu has the capacity to offer additional regional signals and that Star Choice will have this capacity in February 2001. At the hearing, ExpressVu indicated its willingness to increase the offering of regional signals and stated:

 

.we are presently considering various alternatives, as you know, to offer local news in certain markets... Along these lines, we are pleased to report to you that we will be starting discussions immediately with Société Radio-Canada and the Francophone communities of the Atlantic Provinces to distribute a Radio-Canada French-language television station from this region, either Moncton or another, when, by the end of the year, we add even more to our programming menu, as we have been doing this year. This addition means, therefore, that our Francophone subscribers will have access to conventional services from Vancouver, Hull, Montréal, Quebec City and the Atlantic Provinces, covering three time zones.

105.

The Commission notes the announcement of 1 February 2001 by ExpressVu that it has added the signal of CBAFT Moncton to its basic offering.

106.

In accordance with its approach to the distribution of the CBC services by cable distributors, the Commission expects satellite service providers to offer regional signals of the CBC in both official languages. The Commission proposes to deal with this issue when it considers the licence renewal of satellite service providers and will take into account their efforts in this regard.

 

Approach for MDS

107.

The Commission remains of the view that the rather limited transmission capacity of multipoint distribution systems (MDS) continues to warrant special treatment. However, as the technology advances and their channel capacity increases, the Commission expects these systems to offer more French-language services. The Commission proposes to deal with issues relating to the number of specialty services distributed in the minority official language at the time of MDS licensing and licence renewal.

 

Section 3: Reflection of Francophone minority communities in broadcasting services

 

Programming services - Television

108.

During the public consultations, several Francophone communities outside Quebec pointed out the inequality of service and the difficulty in accessing French-language broadcasting services. They also criticized the lack of content reflecting their particular circumstances. Generally, associations and individuals from those communities stressed the importance they place on receiving a true and accurate representation of the community in which they live.

109.

The Fédération des communautés francophone et acadienne du Canada stated at the hearing that [translation] "We absolutely must be able to see and hear ourselves, and find out what is happening in our various Francophone and Acadian communities across the country."

110.

A number of comments focused on the need for a wider distribution of regional productions. In the words of the Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada, [translation] "productions originating in our communities reflect the regional diversity of the country, and actively contribute to portraying the culture of Canada's French linguistic minority communities to other French- and English-language Canadians."

111.

The Commission considers that to adequately meet the needs of French linguistic minority communities and better reflect their realities, a number of elements must come together. These include access to more French-language broadcasting services, increased production of quality programming and better reflection in the programs aired by conventional television broadcasters - public and private, educational, specialty and community services - most of which serve the large Francophone market of Quebec.

 

The Canadian public broadcaster (CBC)

112.

According to the Broadcasting Act, the programming offered by the CBC, as the national public broadcaster, should:

 
  • be in English and in French, reflecting the different needs and circumstances of each official language community, including the particular needs and circumstances of English and French linguistic miniorities;
  • reflect Canada and its regions to national and regional audiences, while serving the special needs of those regions,
  • strive to be of equivalent quality in English and in French;
  • be made available throughout Canada by the most appropriate and efficient means and as resources become available for the purpose.
113.

The Commission notes that representatives of the Corporation attended all of the regional consultations and the public hearing. The Corporation is therefore aware of the various concerns and demands of Francophone communities outside Quebec.

114.

Several interveners stated that community reflection can be provided not only by news programming, but by regionally-produced priority programming as well. The prime time broadcasting of programming produced by the Corporation, such as the 75th anniversary of Manitoba's Cercle Molière aired by the entire network at 8:00 p.m. on 22 November 2000, is an excellent example of how this objective can be achieved. This type of project reinforces the Corporation's role in maintaining Canada's Francophone reality. At the same time, it provides Quebeckers with an opportunity to learn about the dynamic Francophone reality that exists outside Quebec, a reality that, if given the opportunity, could be effectively integrated with programming designed to reflect the reality of Francophones inside Quebec.

115.

During the public hearing, the Vice-president of the CBC's French-language television service pointed out that [translation] "the CBC's French-language service faithfully reflects Canadian realities. Outside Quebec, the French-language network reaches 93% of the Francophone population through its six stations and 15 regional offices. Over the last 10 years, regional stations have continued to produce 1,600 hours of regional and national programming, despite major budget cuts."

116.

The Commission has considered the complaints of several interveners regarding the regional content of the French-language services currently available, as well as the initiatives taken by the CBC to remedy that situation. The Commission also notes that in the recent CBC licence renewal decision, it encouraged the French-language network to intensify its efforts to reflect Canada and its regions to national and regional audiences. Specifically, in Decision CRTC 2000-2, the Commission stated as follows:

 

French-language news and information programs are an excellent vehicle for reflecting the diversity of French-language communities throughout Quebec and Canada. The Corporation's regional stations have an important role to play in this regard. The Commission encourages the licensee to maintain and even enhance its coverage of the concerns of French-language communities in all parts of Canada in its national news and public affairs programming...

 

The CBC, in fact, committed to enhance the presence of regional production crews, entering into partnerships with independent producers to produce more programs that focus on Francophones outside Montréal, and continuing to broadcast the weekly magazine-type information program L'accent francophone, which looks at the life of French-language communities outside Quebec. Finally, it will set up an advisory committee consisting of 12 regional representatives to advise it on the needs of regional communities and monitor implementation of the regional plan it proposed at the hearing...

 

The commitments set out above are a step in the right direction, but the Commission considers that this issue deserves more attention. It expects the CBC to increase its efforts to reflect more effectively the life of Francophones in all of Canada's regions in its information and public affairs programming...

 

CBC French-language television should maintain and even increase regional production. The supper-hour newscasts are popular and offer a different approach to the coverage of local, regional and national issues compared to the private stations.

117.

Given the role that the CBC plays for all Canadians, the Commission has proposed measures in the distribution section of this report specifying that at least one CBC conventional television network signal in each official language be carried by all broadcasting distribution undertakings in analog mode in Canada. The Commission expects the Corporation to pay particular attention to regional realities and to meet the expectations contained in its licence renewal.

 

National distribution of the private television network TVA

118.

The majority of Francophone interveners, groups and individuals, reiterated their satisfaction with the Commission's 1998 decision to mandate the national distribution of TVA.

119.

However, several said that they were disappointed with the proportion of the network's programming devoted to regional representation, and some noted that TVA only rarely used independent producers working in the regions.

120.

The Vice-president of the TVA network and of Le Canal nouvelles maintained that, in the time since the national distribution of TVA began 18 months ago, TVA "has sought to reflect more effectively the needs and interests of Francophone communities outside Quebec." For example, he noted that TVA has created an advisory committee composed of representatives of Francophone communities in all regions of the country, and has surpassed its commitment to broadcast at least six special events per year that reflect the Francophone reality outside Quebec. He also expressed a strong interest in collaborating with independent producers outside Quebec: [translation] "We have held more discussions and meetings over the past year, and have high hopes that those discussions will result in new concrete projects in the near future."

121.

The Commission has considered the observations and comments made during the public consultations with respect to TVA programming and notes the company's replies. The Commission reiterates that in deciding to mandate the national distribution of TVA in 1998, it placed particular importance on the specific commitments made by TVA to adequately reflect the reality of Francophone communities outside Quebec, and made adherence to those commitments conditions of licence. The Commission will therefore continue to closely monitor compliance with the commitments, and will review them at the spring 2001 licence renewal hearing for TVA (see Notice of Public Hearing CRTC 2001-2 dated 26 January 2001). The Commission will also wish to be assured that Québecor, who has applied to purchase TVA, subject to the Commission's approval, will maintain, strengthen or improve upon these commitments as appropriate.

 

Provincial French-language educational television services

122.

Educational television services are under the jurisdiction of provincial educational authorities, from whom they receive their mandates and a portion of their funding. They are subject to the Broadcasting Act and the Direction to the CRTC by the Cabinet (Ineligibility to hold broadcasting licences) which defines the framework within which educational broadcasting services can be licensed. By regulation, the services must be distributed free of charge, as part of the basic service of Class 1 and 2 cable distributors in the province of origin. They appear on the lists of eligible satellite services, and are offered by DTH undertakings. They may also be offered by cable distributors outside their province of origin, but distribution conditions may vary. Because these services are now available outside their province of origin, the educational broadcasters are generally obliged to purchase national program rights.

123.

The Commission is of the view that the free but non-discretionary distribution of Télé-Québec to cable distributors serving Francophone communities across Canada could contribute to the cultural vitality of those communities and have a positive impact on the development of Canadian Francophone broadcasting. According to Télé-Québec's president at the hearing: [translation] "it is our desire that this enriched relationship between Télé-Québec and Francophone communities outside Quebec be one of mutual benefit and prove stimulating for Francophones inside Quebec and outside Quebec, particularly with respect to its programming."

124.

During the public consultations, several interveners indicated that TFO, which is the only French-language broadcaster originating programming outside Quebec, offers programming that more effectively reflects Francophone minorities than that of Quebec broadcasters. In Halifax, the Fédération des parents acadiens de la Nouvelle-Écosse stressed the importance of having TFO programming available in Nova Scotia. It added that through its programming, TFO [translation] "is able to reflect the reality of minority communities, because it has its origins in a minority community." The intervener also pointed out that it is important for children to see that they are not alone and that there are other Francophones in Canada experiencing the same realities as they are: [translation] ".our children.must discover a sense of pride in belonging to the extended family of Francophone Canadians."

125.

Moreover, many of these interveners were of the view that mandatory distribution of TFO in Quebec would have served as the best means to reflect Francophone minorities to Quebec residents. The Commission acknowledges the role that TFO could play in serving this objective. It considers that by combining the efforts of several interested parties with those of public and private broadcasters, educational services and specialty services, the objective of bringing about a better on-screen reflection of minorities can be achieved.

126.

The Commission encourages TFO, cable distributors, those various Francophone and Francophile associations who expressed support for a more extensive distribution of TFO programming outside Ontario, and other interested parties, to discuss the most appropriate funding and distribution options for the carriage of this service beyond Ontario.

 

Canadian specialty services 

127.

Unlike conventional television networks, which broadcast general interest programming, specialty services generally offer programming designed to meet specific needs. Given the nature of those services, the Commission could determine that some have a national role to play. In such circumstances, the Commission might decide to require a licensee to offer programming that reflects certain national realities. This was done in the case of RDI, and Télé des Arts, licensed by the Commission in September 2000.

 
  • RDI: In Decision CRTC 2000-3 renewing RDI's licence, the Commission specified that RDI's programming must, by condition of licence, reflect the concerns of each of the principal Francophone regions in Canada, i.e., Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario and Western Canada. At least one-third of all the original programs broadcast each year must be regional productions.
 
  • Télé des Arts: The Commission notes that it established, as one of the conditions for approval of Télé des Arts' licence application, that the service must reflect "the unique character of Quebec culture and the needs and circumstances of French-language communities in other parts of Canada." The Commission will also ensure that an equitable percentage of the amounts that Télé des Arts has committed to devote to independent production are allocated to regional productions, either outside Montréal or outside Quebec. As another condition of licence, Télé des Arts must reinvest all of its profits in independent production. A quarter of these profits are to go to productions outside Montréal and a further 25% are to be allocated to productions from outside Quebec. The Commission also required that at least 15% of the budget for original Canadian programming be allocated to programs produced outside Quebec during the first four years of the service's operation, and that this amount increase to 20% beginning in the fifth year of operation.
128.

Several interveners were pleased with the conditions of licence that the Commission imposed on Télé des Arts.

129.

At their licence renewals, the Commission will closely monitor how RDI and Télé des Arts have in fact met their conditions of licence and their commitments to French-language minorities.

 

Specialty services with distribution across Canada

130.

French-language specialty services are now licensed for distribution on a national basis. Most, however, remain largely unknown to Francophone communities outside Quebec. This is the case with such services as MusiquePlus, RDS, and Canal Famille. RDI is an exception to this rule. So, too, is TV5, which, for historical reasons and because of its low wholesale rate, remains (after RDI) the most widely-distributed, analog-based, French-language specialty service outside Quebec. Where they are available, French-language specialty services are greatly appreciated. At the Vancouver consultations, several parties, supported by a petition, expressed their disapproval of a decision by a local cable operator to replace MusiquePlus with MuchMoreMusic.

131.

The implementation of the digital distribution policy (see Appendix 2) will provide increased distribution for French-language specialty services in minority communities. Therefore, the Commission will examine these specialty services, at the time it considers the renewal of their licences, to determine, if and where appropriate, how they might more effectively ensure that their programming reflects and represents French-language minority communities.

 

A new national public television service

132.

According to the Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada, [translation] "although television gives us a window on the world, even in the best case scenario we rarely see ourselves reflected back. French-language television in Canada is most often a one-way street. We can discover the richness of Montréal and Quebec culture, of course, but the reverse almost never happens." The Alliance added that [translation] ".French-language television in Canada does not truly reflect Canada, but rather Montréal."

133.

This observation led to several proposals, including one from the Société nationale de l'Acadie, to establish a national public television service devoted entirely to minority Acadian and Francophone communities. According to the Société nationale de l'Acadie, this proposal stems from its concern that the CBC is not fulfilling its "national role" in terms of regional representation.

134.

The Fédération culturelle canadienne française (FCCF) and the Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada (APFC) echoed the proposal.

135.

It appears that the concept of a national public television service devoted entirely to minority Acadian and Francophone communities remains in the embryonic stage. In the absence of a specific proposal, the Commission is unable to comment on the matter at this time.

 

Community television

 

Cable community channels

136.

The Commission received only a few comments on the use of the cable community channel to meets the needs of communities having Francophone minorities.

137.

In 1999, Canadian cable distributors with systems having more than 2,000 subscribers reported the operation of 240 community channels across Canada, funded by budgets totalling $74,253,000.

 

Table 3.1: Cable distribution undertakings contributing financially to community channels

 
 

Number of BDUs contributing financially to community channels

Class and number of subscribers

1996

1997

1998

1999

Class 1 more than 20,000

69

69

69

68

Class 1 fewer than 20,000

70

69

70

71

Class 2 fewer than 6,000

100

100

99

101

Source: CRTC Financial Summaries, 25 August 2000

 

Table 3.2: Community channel expenditures

 
 

Total expenditures - Community channels
(thousands of $)

Class and number of subscribers

1996

1997

1998

1999

Class 1 more than 20,000

62,107

62,166

54,971

54,879

Class 1 fewer than 20,000

11,514

10,838

11,585

12,579

Class 2 fewer than 6,000

4,627

5,083

6,522

6,795

Source: CRTC Financial Summaries, 28 June 2000 and 21 August 2000

138.

With advances in technology and the introduction of digital services, a number of these systems are, or will become, interconnected. This will result in wider exposure for community programming carried on community channels. Some interveners, particularly independent producers outside Quebec, stated that community programming cannot serve as the only vehicle for ensuring better representation of minorities on television, and that conventional and specialty services must also play their part. However, they acknowledged that community television can meet certain local needs, and can act as an attractive outreach and provide training for French minority linguistic communities. The increasing interconnection of these channels, and the potential offered by low-power community television stations, will open up new possibilities in the future that should be explored further by French minority linguistic communities.

139.

In a separate proceeding (Public Notice 2001-19), the Commission seeks public comments on the status of low-power community-based television stations and community cable television channels, and their ability to meet certain community needs. The Commission recognizes that it may be appropriate to develop an integrated approach, based on community programming undertakings, to ensure a diversity of voices by promoting the development of new choices within the broadcasting system.

140.

The Commission invites Francophone organizations and associations to participate in the consultative process announced in Public Notice 2001-19, that relates to community issues, and to explore options set out in the notice for meeting both their local and regional television needs.

 

Independent production in minority communities

141.

Several interveners involved in independent production in minority communities stated that broadcasters do not make sufficient use of their services for regional production. They stated that they have the resources required to create and produce professional, quality programming, but that they need support and letters of commitment from Canadian broadcasters to finance such programming.

142.

At the public hearing, the Fédération culturelle canadienne-française indicated that the talent and resources are available to produce high quality regional programming. According to the Executive Director of the Fédération, of greatest importance is [translation] ".the need to see oneself on the screen. Secondly, our communities across Canada have artists, works, events, productions and creations that deserve to be broadcast on networks. There would be no shame in having them seen across the country and in Francophone communities around the world. The third point in our presentation is that this will not happen on its own. The conditions for making it happen have to be in place, which is probably why communities need locally-based institutions to provide assistance."

143.

During the public consultation in New Brunswick, the Association acadienne des artistes professionnels et professionnelles du Nouveau-Brunswick pointed out the lack of representation of the Acadian community in programming carried on national television:

 

[translation] Acadia is only shown when important events occur. How can we have a real impact on our communities when we are seen only sporadically...How can we develop our own star system for our young people and our communities when we only show up on the news?

144.

To achieve their objectives, the Société Nationale de l'Acadie (SNA) made various recommendations, including the following:

 
  • the CRTC should create a mechanism for assessing the program content of national services to ensure that such services comply with their commitments to regional production and regional reflection;
  • productions or co-productions originating in minority Francophone communities should be broadcast nationally;
  • at least 25% of the programming broadcast by national French-language services should be produced by production companies in Canadian French minority linguistic communities;
  • at least 50% of all regional productions on national French-language services should be broadcast during prime time;
  • productions originating in our communities should contribute to a shared regional and national consciousness and identity, and should showcase artists living in minority communities;
  • national television services should commit to investing at least 25% of their annual budgets in regional productions; and
  • the CBC should establish a five-year action plan for supporting the emergence and development of Francophone production companies in minority communities.
145.

Regarding the first recommendation above, that the CRTC create a mechanism to assess the programming of national services to ensure their compliance with commitments to regional production and regional reflection, the Commission notes that such a mechanism now exists in the form of the licence renewal process. The Commission has already set out its programming expectations and conditions pertaining to certain national networks (RDI, TVA and Télé des Arts), and will be able to examine the performance of these licensees during the next round of licence renewals. In the case of the CBC French-language television network, in Decision CRTC 2000-2, the Commission required the CBC to submit to the Commission an annual report on its activities.

146.

The Commission is of the view that the other SNA recommendations should first be discussed by the principal stakeholders themselves, taking into account the other constraints and obligations to which broadcasters are subject. The Commission realizes that there is already a working group in place (le Groupe de travail sur les arts médiatiques). This group is is composed of, among others, Heritage Canada, the Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada (APFC), several broadcasters (including the CBC, TVA and TFO), and program funds and public production agencies (such as Telefilm Canada and the NFB).

147.

Accordingly, the Commission encourages the various stakeholders to continue their efforts to increase the number of original productions originating in French-language minority communities and aired by Canadian broadcasters. The working group's efforts have already produced results, notably the appointment of an APFC representative to the Board of Directors of the Canadian Television Fund. The Commission encourages the licensees of French-language conventional services, and those of the new specialty services that are to be distributed across Canada in digital mode, to make greater use of independent producers from outside Quebec.

 

Foreign French-language services

148.

During the hearings and consultations, there was some discussion of the role that foreign French-language services could play. The Broadcasting Act states that the programming offered by the Canadian broadcasting system should draw on local, national and international sources.

149.

TV5, although it holds a Canadian broadcasting licence, offers French-language programming of which 85% originates in Europe (France, Switzerland and Belgium). Moreover, the service is distributed via satellite or cable to over five million subscribers outside Quebec. Thus, there already exists a minimum offering of programming reflecting international Francophonie. Nevertheless, there is only one foreign French-language programming service on the current lists of eligible satellite services. Accordingly, in Notice of Public Hearing CRTC 2000-5 regarding applications for new digital pay and specialty television services, the Commission stated its intention to assess the role that non-Canadian French-language services could play in increasing the availability and variety of French-language programming services in Canada.

150.

The Commission examined this issue during the public hearing that began on 14 August 2000 on digital specialty services. The applicants for Canadian pay and specialty analog and digital services stated that they did not oppose the addition of non-Canadian French-language services, as long as the Commission assessed them against the background of the existing policy on the distribution of non-Canadian services.

151.

In Public Notice 2000-173, the Commission announced its intention to move quickly to review applications for adding non-Canadian services to the lists of eligible satellite services for digital distribution, provided they not compete in whole or in part, with Canadian services.

 

Section 4: Radio

 

Service availability

 

Public radio (CBC)

152.

Within the framework of the consultations, the CBC provided data to the Commission on the French-speaking population effectively served by the two main French-language radio networks.

153.

The following table illustrates La Première Chaîne's distribution outside Quebec. Although it serves 98% of Canada's French-speaking population, its range outside Quebec is not as extensive as it is within Quebec. Percentages range from a low of 55% in the Northwest Territories, home to less than 2% of individuals with a knowledge of French living outside Quebec, to a high of 98% in Ontario, which is home to more 55% of individuals living outside Quebec and having a knowledge of French.

 

Table 4.1: Population with a knowledge of French served by CBC's
La Première Chaîne network (outside Quebec)

 
  Source: CBC data as of 99/01/10
* Data for Nunavut are incorporated with that for the Northwest Territories
 

The complete list of rebroadcasting transmitters of the Première Chaîne, outside Quebec, is available in Appendix 5.

154. Table 4.2 shows the small percentage of the French-speaking population outside Quebec that is served by La Chaîne culturelle.
 

Table 4.2: Population with a knowledge of French served by
La Chaîne culturelle (outside Quebec)

 
  Source: Radio-Canada, data on population served as of 98/05/31, data projections as of 99/01/10
* Data for Nunavut are incorporated with that for the Northwest Territories
  The complete list of rebroadcasting transmitters of La Chaîne culturelle, outside Quebec, is available in Appendix 6.
  Private radio
155. French-language private radio outside Quebec consists of only a few stations in two provinces: three stations in Ontario and four in New Brunswick.
 

Table 4.3: French-language Private radio (outside Quebec)

 

Call sign

Name

City

Province

 

Denis Losier (OBCI)

Moncton

NB

CHPR-FM

Radio Nord Communications inc.

Hawkesbury

ON

CHYC-FM

The Haliburton Broadcasting Group Inc.

Sudbury

ON

CHYK-FM

The Haliburton Broadcasting Group Inc.

Timmins

ON

CJEM-FM

Radio Edmundston

Edmundston

NB

CJVA

Radio Acadie Ltée

Caraquet

NB

CKLE-FM

Radio de La Baie Ltée

Caraquet

NB

This list includes only originating stations. For a complete list, including rebroadcasting stations, please see Appendix 7.

 

Community radio

156.

In the community radio sector, the Réseau francophone d'Amérique, a private network operated by the Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada (ARCC), was approved on 4 February 1998 (Decision CRTC 98-23). This network currently consists of 17 participating community radio stations and covers the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.

 

Table 4.4: French-language community radio stations (outside Quebec)

 

Call sign

Name

City

Province

CFAI-FM

La Coopérative des Montagnes Limitée-Radio Communautaire

EDMUNDSTON

NB

CFAI-FM-1

La Coopérative des Montagnes Limitée-Radio Communautaire

GRAND-SAULT

NB

CFJU-FM

La Radio Communautaire des Hauts-Plateaux incorporée

KEDGWICK/ST QUENTIN

NB

CFRH-FM

La Clé d'la Baie en Huronie, Association culturelle francophone

PENETANGUISHENE

ON

CHOD-FM

Radio Communautaire Cornwall-Alexandria inc.

CORNWALL

ON

CIFA-FM

Radio CLARE Association

YARMOUTH
(COMEAUVILLE)

NS

CIMS-FM

Coopérative Radio Restigouche ltée

BALMORAL

NB

CINN-FM

Radio de L'Épinette Noire Inc.

HEARST

ON

CIVR-FM

L'Association Franco-Culturelle de Yellowknife

YELLOWKNIFE

NT

CJPN-FM

Radio Frédéricton inc.

FREDERICTON

NB

CJRM-FM

Radio Communautaire du Labrador inc.

LABRADOR CITY

NF

CJSE-FM

Radio Beauséjour inc.

SHEDIAC

NB

CKGN-FM

Radio Communautaire Kapnord Inc.

KAPUSKASING

ON

CKJM-FM

La Coopérative Radio Chéticamp Limitée

CHETICAMP

NS

CKRO-FM

Radio Péninsule inc.

POKEMOUCHE

NB

CKRP-FM

L'Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta,

FALHER

AB

CKXL-FM

Radio Communautaire du Manitoba inc.

ST-BONIFACE

MB

This list includes only originating stations. For a complete list, including rebroadcasting stations, please see Appendix 8.

 

Observations

157.

The largest share of comments dealing with the radio sector that were made during the public consultations and at the hearing focused on public radio and the future of French-language community radio in minority communities.

 

Public radio

158.

At the hearing of 18 October 2000, the CBC's Vice-President of French Radio pointed out the degree of coverage achieved by the Corporation's two French-language radio networks. He noted that La Première Chaîne reaches 98% of the French-speaking population of Canada. Eleven of its 19 basic stations are located outside Quebec and 5 of its offices are located in Francophone minority communities. He added that about 30 hours of national programming are produced, approximately half of which originates in regions outside Quebec, and that each station in the network produces an average of about 40 hours of local programming each week.

159.

In addition, according to the CBC, La Chaîne culturelle serves 81% of Francophones across Canada. La Chaîne culturelle has seven stations, including two in Ontario and one in New Brunswick; a station in Sudbury and a repeater station in Campbellton will soon be added. Applications have also been filed to establish La Chaîne culturelle in Vancouver and Winnipeg.

160.

As part of its recommendations, the CBC requested that the government be advised that it would be appropriate to expand the availability of La Chaîne culturelle by establishing an accelerated coverage plan or by reserving FM frequencies in order to allow the CBC to complete its extension of La Chaîne culturelle service to minority markets.

161.

The principal observations of interveners other than the CBC included the following:

 
  • the CBC stations should be more representative of the realities of minority communities;
  • the CBC should increase the number of its transmitters in order to cover more regions;
  • the CBC should be encouraged to sign service agreements and agreements for the sharing of its facilities with community radio stations in order to facilitate their emergence;
  • French-language radio networks broadcasting on the Internet and via satellite should be made available through inexpensive conventional technological means;
  • steps should be taken to ensure that French-language services received in minority communities are more tailored to the realities of their target communities (e.g., more regional than national content).
 

Community radio

162.

The community radio sector, for the most part represented by ARCC, stated clearly that this sector has proven that it is capable of meeting the needs of communities. Some community groups believe the CBC lacks the funding to provide full coverage of communities where minorities are located. It is therefore crucial in their view, to establish a French-language radio development plan for minority communities in Canada.

163.

Interveners also noted that developing and strengthening this sector can only be achieved by granting community stations priority in the allocation of FM frequencies. Moreover, according to ARCC, there are not enough frequencies currently available and this tends to restrict the number of radio proposals that are filed. Many stakeholders expressed a desire to see the Department of Canadian Heritage's funding criteria raised from 50% to 75% of project costs. The Association canadienne française de l'Alberta considered that Canadian Heritage should establish a radio production fund similar to the fund it established for television.

164.

The President of ARCC, which represents 28 community stations in Canada (17 currently in operation and 11 under development), argued in favour of a more generous distribution of frequencies to community radio stations. He suggested that the CRTC and Industry Canada should reserve non-commercial Class B or Class C FM frequencies in each region where there are a significant number of Francophone minority communities, and should set aside space for community radio stations on digital transmitters. He argued that this would prevent this new broadcasting technology from favouring commercial broadcasters and the CBC over community radio. It was also suggested that a frequency development plan should be defined specifically for community radio stations.

165.

ARCC commended the Commission for its efforts to relax its regulations governing community radio. However, ARCC did express reservations about the criterion for developmental stations that limits transmitter power to no more than 5 watts. ARCC and interveners in many provinces supported an increase to 250 watts in order to allow the establishment of developmental stations in areas outside urban areas, thus making it possible over time to extend coverage to Canadians in large and sparsely populated areas (e.g., villages in parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan that are separated by considerable distances.)

166.

Some considered that the Commission's policy should contain a more clear assessment of the situation facing French-language community radio stations in minority areas. New Brunswick's Radio-Beauséjour proposed the creation of a new class of licence to be known as "proximity radio." As described, this designation would have the advantage of illustrating the direct relationship between this type of station and its listeners. It would also distinguish between Quebec community stations, which are generally located in an area already served by another broadcaster, and community stations in minority language areas that, outside Quebec, are usually the only French-language voices available over the air.

167.

Other interveners associated with community radio made the following comments:

 
  • community radio stations seek to sign contracts to exchange services with the CBC, both with respect to the sharing of their technical facilities so as to extend the community radio network, and with respect to programs in order to meet the needs of minority communities;
  • the Réseau francophone d'Amérique should be extended using equipment purchased with the aid of financing from Canadian Heritage;
  • the establishment of a Toronto community radio station is of vital importance to the success of the Réseau francophone d'Amérique;
  • community radio stations should have spectrum set aside for them to convert to digital broadcasting;
  • cable distribution undertakings should distribute community radio programming in the communities they serve.
 

Analysis

 

Allocation and assignment of frequencies

168.

As noted by the CBC in the development of its coverage plan for La Chaîne culturelle and by ARCC in the development of the Réseau francophone d'Amérique, the allocation and assignment of frequencies is one of the principal factors curbing their capacity for development.

169.

The allocation of FM frequencies presents a problem in that such frequencies are becoming increasingly scarce. This shortage of frequencies is more critical in the country's major urban areas. Frequency congestion is a problem that exists in our major cities, despite careful spectrum management by Industry Canada. This situation affects the awarding of new licences by the Commission, which must ensure that new services make the best possible use of the available frequency, in the public interest. The Commission cannot approve new radio undertakings without considering the availability of frequencies. In fact, the scarcity of available frequencies often makes it necessary for the CRTC to examine proposals filed for a particular market for a single frequency under a competitive process, even though such proposals may have very different objectives and may appeal to audiences that are also very different.

170.

In its response to the Governor in Council with respect to Order in Council P.C. 2000-1464 concerning the Toronto market, the Commission formulated a number of recommendations inviting Industry Canada to examine the measures proposed by interveners to increase the number of over-the-air analog and digital radio frequencies available within the frequency spectrum.

171.

In the current context, the CRTC should continue to ensure that all new frequency allocations constitute the best possible use of those frequencies, in the public interest. Accordingly, the CRTC must continue to take into account competitive situations, particularly in major urban areas, where demand far outweighs the availability of frequencies. However, the federal government, as suggested by the CBC and ARCC, and as permitted under Section 26 of the Broadcasting Act, may decide to reserve frequencies for specific purposes. Thus, the government may issue directions to the Commission:

 
  • respecting the maximum number of channels or frequencies for the use of which licences may be issued within a geographical area designated in the order; and
  • respecting the reservation of channels or frequencies for the use of the Corporation or for any special purpose designated in the order.
 

The CBC

172.

In its renewal of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's licences, the Commission recognized that the French-language radio service of the CBC is unique and distinct from commercial radio, both in information (La Première Chaîne) and in arts, culture and music (La Chaîne culturelle). It is a service, the Commission noted, that is greatly appreciated by its loyal listeners, that contributes significantly to Francophone expression, and that enhances the overall diversity of French-language radio. The Commission noted, however, as was pointed out in the consultations, that French-language CBC stations should ensure the fair representation on the airwaves of minority communities.

173.

The Commission expects the CBC to implement its commitments as well as the conditions and expectations stated in its licence renewal (CRTC Decision 2000-2), in particular "to take steps to ensure the fair representation, on the airwaves of regional stations and in network programs, of the issues and the concerns of all Francophone groups and communities across the country"; and that La Chaîne culturelle "extend its service coverage to:

 
  • at least 50% of the French-speaking population of each province by the end of the licence term;
  • at least 75% of the French-speaking population of New Brunswick and Ontario by the end of the licence term;
  • all the provincial capitals by the end of the licence term."
174.

During the consultations, the Commission noted that relations between the CBC and operators of community stations in minority communities generally seemed healthy and constructive.

175.

The CBC's Vice-President of French Radio made mention of this in reference, among other things, to the framework agreement that the CBC has signed with ARCC, which covers several subjects including the sharing of content. The CBC currently provides daily information bulletins to ARCC and places a number of general interest programs at ARCC's disposal. He also noted that regions outside Quebec produce and broadcast close to 2,500 program segments annually throughout Canada on the two French-language networks.

176.

The Commission commends the CBC on its collaboration with community radio stations in minority communities, and encourages it to pursue its discussions with respect to programming, antenna time sharing and access to its transmitter sites, particularly in areas where frequency congestion is very high.

 

Community broadcasting services

177.

In January 2000, the Commission issued a policy framework for the development of community radio. This policy was widely supported by interested parties. However, some proposed various amendments that would apply specifically to French-language minority community radio stations.

178.

The Commission recently issued PN 2001-19, inviting the public to submit its observations and comments on the revision of the community channel policy and the policy on low-power radio broadcasting. In the rapidly changing world of communications, and in light of the merging and consolidation of broadcasting companies as well as the emergence of new technologies, the Commission recognized the importance of opening up new avenues and proposed a regulatory framework that would integrate the following three sectors: low-power radio, low-power community-based television stations and cable community television channels.

179.

The Commission therefore invites interested parties, including Francophone and Francophile associations, and those involved in community radio broadcasting to take part in the public process announced in PN 2001-19 by submitting their observations concerning the matters raised therein. This process will focus on many of the concerns that have been raised.

180.

The rebroadcasting of community radio by cable systems was raised and discussed on several occasions, particularly as it relates to the interconnection of cable systems in some regions. Although this alternative may be considered in certain cases, technical and financial considerations related to the broadcasting, receiving and distribution of the signal are factors that might limit its feasibility. If particular community radio stations believe that such an option could be effective in their areas, the Commission encourages them to discuss the matter with the cable distribution undertakings concerned.

 

Financing community radio

181.

Several interveners informed the Commission that, in addition to the availability and accessibility of frequencies, the development of community radio services is frequently related to the issue of project financing.

182.

The public consultations indicated that community broadcasting is an effective means to increase French-language services outside Quebec. Some expressed the view that community broadcasting represents an alternative to the public broadcaster, as well as a tool for the development and enrichment of minority communities. For its part, however, the Commission recognizes that the viability of any community broadcasting proposal is very closely tied to funding.

183.

Matters concerning the criteria, terms and conditions of obtaining financing, are not under the Commission's jurisdiction, but come under the purview of other government bodies. Accordingly, the Commission invites community and Francophone associations to initiate and pursue the steps necessary to make their views known to authorities responsible for such matters as financing.

 

Section 5: New Media

184.

Referring to the technological progress that has been made in recent years, the Order in Council identified new and other technologies as possible means of enhancing the range of services to Francophones in minority communities.

185.

In a world increasingly oriented toward electronic communications and digital transmission, the fact that new technologies now constitute an additional, non-traditional avenue cannot be overlooked. As the following table shows, Canada has taken the lead in this regard. The number of homes with increasingly powerful personal computers and high-speed Internet access, and the profile of those using these tools, indicate clearly that the dynamics of broadcasting services are bound to change significantly within a few years. This could give Francophone minorities access to a much greater amount of French-language content than they currently have. It could also eliminate the limitations imposed by distance and by the technical costs related to transmission and distribution equipment in regions where, based on economic criteria alone, the number of potential users does not justify the investment.

 

Table 5.1 Connection rates to the World Wide Web

 
 

Source: Price Waterhouse Coopers, November 2000

186.

According to a study by Price Waterhouse Coopers, made public on 16 November 2000, almost half of Canadian households are connected to the World Wide Web. The exact figure for Canada is 48.2%, which compares with 43% in the United States, 38% in Australia and 26% in Europe (France, Great Britain and Germany, for the purposes of this study).

187.

The study shows that Canadians also rank first in terms of the number of hours spent surfing the Net, with an average of 5.1 hours per week, a clear increase over 1999 when the figure was 3.9 hours per week.

188.

The following chart illustrates, among other things, the percentage of Canadian households using the Internet. One notes that between 1998 and 1999, household use has surpassed professional use.

 

Table 5.2: Distribution of Internet use

 
 

Source: Statistics Canada - Services Indicators, 1st Quarter, 1999 - Household Internet Use Survey, 1999

189.

Over the past three years, use of the Internet has become a common practice for many Canadians, whether they are at work or at home. This technological tool has become the most popular means of communications for a significant proportion of the Canadian population.

 

Rate of penetration by province

190.

The following section examines the new media as they relate to Francophone minorities, and the level of Internet penetration in the provinces where those minorities reside.

 

Table 5.3: Rate of Internet penetration (%) in provinces outside Quebec

 

 

Source: Statistics Canada - Services Indicators, 1st Quarter, 1999 - Household Internet Use Survey, 1999

191.

During the consultations, new technologies were discussed largely as means of enhancing Francophone broadcasting services through digital distribution. Few suggestions were made with regard to the use of new media as alternatives for broadening the range of services available to Francophones in minority communities.

192.

Although the statistics in this document indicate that Canadians are among those most connected to the Internet, interveners did not seem to regard the new media as an additional means to complement the conventional services at their disposal for enhancing services delivered in French. With a level of Internet penetration close to 50%, there can be no question that the new technologies constitute an important method of communication.

193.

The Commission considers that the development of new media will help make services more accessible to current and future generations in minority communities. This will enable them to take advantage of more tools and content, thus better ensuring the development of their language and culture in a way that was not possible for previous generations in such communities.

194.

The Commission considers it unlikely that new media will replace conventional radio and television. On the contrary, the Commission believes that new media complement conventional broadcasting services and make it possible to expand distribution, thus making broadcasting services available to users who would otherwise not have had access to them.

195.

For example, in the area of public television, the Commission notes that every day the CBC updates a Web site that includes some 95,000 pages of information and close to 3,000 hours of audio and video material.

196.

The radio sector is also performing well. In the area of public radio, the CBC offers live transmissions of La Première chaîne and La Chaîne culturelle on its Web site. Several privately-owned French-language radio stations also transmit live on the Internet.

197.

The Commission also notes that recent years have witnessed a proliferation of Web sites maintained by licensees of specialty services. For example, LCN rebroadcasts its headlines via the Internet. In general, specialty services have viewed the Internet as a unique opportunity to promote their services while offering Internet users the chance to view segments of their programming.

198.

During the consultations, several interveners stressed that community radio stations lacked the means to become established. In light of recent technological developments, it might be appropriate for community and Francophone associations to explore the opportunities offered by new media for introducing community radio in minority communities. In fact, the Commission is of the opinion that constant improvements in advanced technology and current progress in terms of rebroadcasting of programs will enable new media to become one of the preferred means of transmitting, exchanging and sharing community television and radio broadcasts.

199.

Given the role played by the Internet in complementing conventional broadcasting services, the Commission regards the Internet as an effective means of improving access to certain services in regions where other means are not available and where there are high concentrations of minority Francophone communities. It therefore encourages all players in the Canadian broadcasting system to continue their efforts to make use of the Internet for this purpose.

 

High-speed Internet connection

200.

According to the Price Waterhouse Coopers study mentioned previously, 22% of Canadian households that are connected to the Internet have a high-speed connection. Last year, this figure was only 18%.

201.

Given that:

 
  • the use of high-speed links makes transmission of broadcasting services more efficient,
 
  • growth in the digital capacity of cable distributors and the technologies used by telecommunications undertakings will continue to promote rapid development of high-speed connections in Canada, and
 
  • the government will make high-speed Internet access available to residents in all communities in Canada by 2004,
 

the Commission is confident that, in the future, urban and rural minority Francophone communities will have improved access to this distribution medium as a complement to traditional French-language broadcasting services.

 

Conclusion

202.

The Commission wishes to thank all of the individuals, organizations and associations who participated in the process of public consultation that took place in the fall of last year. Their contributions to the discussion and thoughtful suggestions have been of great assistance to the Commission in preparing this report.

203.

The Commission emphasizes that, consistent with Order in Council 2000-511, one of the principal objectives of this report is to examine the means to foster improved access by Francophones living in minority environments in Canada to broadcasting services in their own language, and to promote a more accurate reflection of their culture and distinctiveness. The Commission considers that the implementation of digital technology will contribute to the achievement of these objectives, as well as the achievement of the broad cultural goals set out in section 3.(1) of the Broadcasting Act.

204.

The Commission is also convinced that the very large transmission capacity of digital technology represents an invaluable opportunity to expand the number of broadcasting services offered to all Canadians, thus giving consumers greater choice.

205.

To this end, the Commission has proposed a number of concrete measures that take into account the current realities, while anticipating future developments as well. In particular, the Commission has put a policy framework in place designed to increase the availability of specialty television services to official language minorities across Canada.

206.

The Commission considers that it cannot serve as the sole instrument for achieving all of the pursued objectives. The Commission is convinced that only the collective effort of all parties involved will make it possible to offer Francophone minorities in Canada a fuller range of broadcasting services that more accurately reflect their reality, thereby enabling them to thrive in the communities they have chosen to make their homes, wherever they are located, thus achieving a better balance

 

Secretary General

 

This document is available in alternative format upon request and may also be viewed at the following Internet site: http://www.crtc.gc.ca 

 

 

 

Appendix 1

 

List of recommendations

 

Section 2: Distribution of French-language broadcasting services

 

Distribution on digital mode

 

Paragraph

 #53

The Commission has adopted the following policy approach:

 

Distribution undertakings serving over 2000 subscribers and using the high capacity numeric technology: 750 MHz or up.

 

a) Licensees of distribution undertakings serving more than 2,000 subscribers and using high-capacity digital technology (750 MHz nominal or more) will be required to offer all English-language and French-language Canadian specialty services and at least one pay television service, but not Category 2 digital specialty services or pay-per-view television services.

 

Distribution undertakings serving over 2000 subscribers and using digital capacity of technology: less than 750 MHz.

 

b) Licensees serving more than 2,000 subscribers and using digital technology of lower capacity (less than 750 MHz nominal) will be required to distribute at least one Canadian specialty service in the minority official language for every 10 programming services (Canadian and non-Canadian) distributed in the majority official language.

#54

The Commission emphasizes that the obligation imposed on the licensees to offer services places no obligation on subscribers to subscribe to them. The Commission considers that the choice of whether or not to subscribe to services must remain with the consumer.

 

Class 3 distribution undertakings having less than 2000 subscribers and using a less high digital capacity numeric technology (550 MHz) utilization of the 1:10 ratio.

#63

All licensees of Class 3 undertakings that use digital technology of a capacity of 550 MHz nominal or more, will be required to distribute at least one Canadian specialty service in the minority official language for every 10 programming services (Canadian and non-Canadian) distributed in the majority official language

 

Class 3 distribution undertakings interconnected to another system

#64

Furthermore, a Class 3 system that is fully interconnected to another system will be required to provide the same number of minority official language services as the system to which it is interconnected, unless it does not have the capacity to do so.

 

Accessibility of Canadian specialty services at a moderate cost

#67

The Commission expects distribution undertakings to ensure that specialty services are delivered to subscribers at affordable rates, in compliance with section 3(1)(t)(ii) of the Act, and are packaged in a manner that reflects the needs of official language minorities. To this end, the Commission further expects specialty services to apply wholesale rates that are consistent with those proposed at the hearing.

 

Distribution on analog mode

#73

The Commission considers that, in the short term, the majority of cable programming services will continue to be provided in analog mode. Accordingly, the Commission has decided not to permit any reduction in the number of French-language services distributed on analog channels in Anglophone markets. All Class 1 and 2 cable systems in Anglophone markets will be required to provide, in analog mode, the same number of Canadian French-language services as that being distributed on analog channels on 10 March 2000 (PN 2000-38).

 

Distribution of the CBC television services

#81

All cable systems will be required to distribute at least one CBC signal in each official language. In accordance with section 3(1)(m)(vii) of the Broadcasting Act, the Commission considers that the Corporation should assume responsibility for delivering its signals to distributors. Once this occurs, i.e. once the signals have been provided to a distributor's head end, then the distributor will be required to deliver these services to its subscribers and assume responsibility for the associated distribution costs.

 

Distribution of "Télé des Arts"

#85

The Commission emphasizes that one of the conditions of licence imposed on Télé des Arts stipulates that the service must be made available free of charge to cable distributors who distribute the service on an analog basis in Anglophone markets. The Commission encourages cable distributors to offer the service. Moreover, the Commission notes that its new policy should result in wider distribution of all specialty services in digital mode.

 

Distribution of Réseau de l'information (RDI)

#90

The Commission encourages RDI to continue its efforts to ensure distribution of its service in analog mode. The Commission also encourages distributors to continue providing this service to their subscribers in analog mode or to add the analog distribution of this service if it is not currently being carried. The Commission notes that RDI will also benefit from the measures adopted in the policy on the distribution of digital specialty services described in Appendix 2.

 

Distribution of TVA

#93

As stated in Decision 98-488, the Commission encourages Class 3 distributors to add TVA to their analog service offering. The Commission emphasizes in this regard that, when distributed on an optional basis, the conventional TVA service can be included in the number of French-language specialty services that are distributed, for the purpose of meeting the required 1:10 minimum ratio.

 

Distribution of CPAC

#97

Concerning distribution of CPAC the Commission expects distributors to provide this service in the majority language in any given market, and also to offer the SAP signal in the minority language where the technology being used makes this possible.

#98

Moreover, the Commission intends to examine the issue of CPAC's distribution further and will shortly initiate a separate process to determine whether the distribution status of CPAC should be changed, in light of its importance in making the proceedings of the House of Commons available to Canadians.

 

Distribution of French-language Educational television services

#102

The Commission notes the positions of the two educational broadcasters and, in particular, the offer by Télé-Québec to make its service available without charge. When conventional educational services are distributed in digital mode outside their province of origin, they can be included in calculating the number of French-language services offered for the purpose of meeting the required 1:10 minimum ratio.

 

CBC regional service offered by satellite

#106

In accordance with its approach to the distribution of the CBC services by cable distributors, the Commission expects satellite service providers to offer regional signals of the CBC in both official languages. The Commission proposes to deal with this issue when it considers the licence renewal of satellite service providers and will take into account their efforts in this regard.

 

Approach for MDS

#107

The Commission remains of the view that the rather limited transmission capacity of multipoint distribution systems (MDS) continues to warrant special treatment. However, as the technology advances and their channel capacity increases, the Commission expects these systems to offer more French-language services. The Commission proposes to deal with issues relating to the number of specialty services distributed in the minority official language at the time of MDS licensing and licence renewal.

 

Section 3: Reflection of Francophone minority communities in broadcasting services

#111

The Commission considers that to adequately meet the needs of French linguistic minority communities and better reflect their realities, a number of elements must come together. These include access to more French-language broadcasting services, increased production of quality programming and better reflection in the programs aired by conventional television broadcasters - public and private, educational, specialty and community services - most of which serve the large Francophone market of Quebec.

 

Increased regional reflection on the CBC

#117

Given the role that the CBC plays for all Canadians, the Commission has proposed measures in the distribution section of this report specifying that at least one CBC conventional television network signal in each official language be carried by all broadcasting distribution undertakings in analog mode in Canada. The Commission expects the Corporation to pay particular attention to regional realities and to meet the expectations contained in its licence renewal.

 

National distribution of TVA

#121

The Commission reiterates that in deciding to mandate the national distribution of TVA in 1998, it placed particular importance on the specific commitments made by TVA to adequately reflect the reality of Francophone communities outside Quebec, and made adherence to those commitments conditions of licence. The Commission will therefore continue to closely monitor compliance with the commitments, and will review them at the spring 2001 licence renewal hearing for TVA (see Notice of Public Hearing CRTC 2001-2 dated 26 January 2001). The Commission will also wish to be assured that Québecor, who has applied to purchase TVA, subject to the Commission's approval, will maintain, strengthen or improve upon these commitments as appropriate.

 

Distribution of TFO outside the province of Ontario

#126

The Commission encourages TFO, cable distributors, those various Francophone and Francophile associations who expressed support for a more extensive distribution of TFO programming outside Ontario, and other interested parties, to discuss the most appropriate funding and distribution options for the carriage of this service beyond Ontario.

 

RDI and Télé des Arts's compliance with their conditions of licence

#129

At their licence renewals, the Commission will closely monitor how RDI and Télé des Arts have in fact met their conditions of licence and their commitments to French-language minorities.

 

National distribution of specialty services

#131

The implementation of the digital distribution policy (see Appendix 2) will provide increased distribution for French-language specialty services in minority communities. Therefore, the Commission will examine these specialty services, at the time it considers the renewal of their licences, to determine, if and where appropriate, how they might more effectively ensure that their programming reflects and represents French-language minority communities.

 

A new national public television service entirely dedicaded to Acadian and francophone minority communities.

#135

It appears that the concept of a national public television service devoted entirely to minority Acadian and Francophone communities remains in the embryonic stage. In the absence of a specific proposal, the Commission is unable to comment on the matter at this time.

 

The Community television

#140

The Commission invites Francophone organizations and associations to participate in the consultative process announced in Public Notice 2001-19, that relates to community issues, and to explore options set out in the notice for meeting both their local and regional television needs.

 

Independent production in minority communities

#147

Accordingly, the Commission encourages the various stakeholders to continue their efforts to increase the number of original productions originating in French-language minority communities and aired by Canadian broadcasters. The working group's efforts have already produced results, notably the appointment of an APFC representative to the Board of Directors of the Canadian Television Fund. The Commission encourages the licensees of French-language conventional services, and those of the new specialty services that are to be distributed across Canada in digital mode, to make greater use of independent producers from outside Quebec.

 

French-language foreign services

#151

In Public Notice 2000-173, the Commission announced its intention to move quickly to review applications for adding non-Canadian services to the lists of eligible satellite services for digital distribution, provided they not compete in whole or in part, with Canadian services.

 

Section 4: Radio

 

Allocation and assignment of frequencies

#171

In the current context, the CRTC should continue to ensure that all new frequency allocations constitute the best possible use of those frequencies, in the public interest. Accordingly, the CRTC must continue to take into account competitive situations, particularly in major urban areas, where demand far outweighs the availability of frequencies. However, the federal government, as suggested by the CBC and ARCC, and as permitted under Section 26 of the Broadcasting Act, may decide to reserve frequencies for specific purposes. Thus, the government may issue directions to the Commission:

 
  • respecting the maximum number of channels or frequencies for the use of which licences may be issued within a geographical area designated in the order; and
  • respecting the reservation of channels or frequencies for the use of the Corporation or for any special purpose designated in the order.
 

CBC French radio

#173

The Commission expects the CBC to implement its commitments as well as the conditions and expectations stated in its licence renewal (CRTC Decision 2000-2), in particular "to take steps to ensure the fair representation, on the airwaves of regional stations and in network programs, of the issues and the concerns of all Francophone groups and communities across the country"; and that La Chaîne culturelle "extend its service coverage to:

 
  • at least 50% of the French-speaking population of each province by the end of the licence term;
  • at least 75% of the French-speaking population of New Brunswick and Ontario by the end of the licence term;
  • all the provincial capitals by the end of the licence term."
 

Collaboration between CBC and community radio stations

#176

The Commission commends the CBC on its collaboration with community radio stations in minority communities, and encourages it to pursue its discussions with respect to programming, antenna time sharing and access to its transmitter sites, particularly in areas where frequency congestion is very high.

 

Community radio

#178

The Commission recognized the importance of opening up new avenues and proposed a regulatory framework that would integrate the following three sectors: low-power radio, low-power community-based television stations and cable community television channels.

#179

The Commission therefore invites interested parties, including Francophone and Francophile associations, and those involved in community radio broadcasting to take part in the public process announced in PN 2001-19 by submitting their observations concerning the matters raised therein. This process will focus on many of the concerns that have been raised.

 

Financing community radio

#183

The Commission invites community and Francophone associations to initiate and pursue the steps necessary to make their views known to authorities responsible for such matters as financing.

 

Section 5: New Media

#199

Given the role played by the Internet in complementing conventional broadcasting services, the Commission regards the Internet as an effective means of improving access to certain services in regions where other means are not available and where there are high concentrations of minority Francophone communities. It therefore encourages all players in the Canadian broadcasting system to continue their efforts to make use of the Internet for this purpose.

#201

Given that :

 
  • the use of high-speed links makes transmission of broadcasting services more efficient,
  • growth in the digital capacity of cable distributors and the technologies used by telecommunications undertakings will continue to promote rapid development of high-speed connections in Canada, and
  • the government will make high-speed Internet access available to residents in all communities in Canada by 2004,
 

the Commission is confident that, in the future, urban and rural minority Francophone communities will have improved access to this distribution medium as a complement to traditional French-language broadcasting services.

 

 

 

Appendix 2

 

Public Notice CRTC 2001-26

 

Ottawa, 12 February 2001

 

A policy to increase the availability to cable subscribers of specialty services in the minority official language

 

This public notice provides further details and discusses certain amendments that the Commission must make to the Broadcasting Distribution Regulations in order to implement certain of the measures and recommendations related to distribution issues and put forward in the report to the Governor in Council released today (Public Notice CRTC 2001-25). This notice also concludes the process initiated in Public Notice CRTC 2000-38.

 

Introduction

1.

Following the publication of a proposed policy by the Commission to increase the availability of specialty services in the minority official language for cable subscribers (Public Notice CRTC 2000-38, 10 March 2000), the Governor in Council, on 5 April 2000, issued Order in Council P.C. 2000-511. The Order requested that the Commission, pursuant to the Broadcasting Act (the Act), take its initiative further.

2.

In Public Notice CRTC 2001-25 released today, the Commission announces the results of its consultations on the issues raised by the Governor in Council and on the proposed policy set out in PN CRTC 2000-38. PN CRTC 2001-25 also sets out the reasons underlying the Commission's determinations. The purpose of this public notice is to describe the steps that the Commission intends to follow to put these measures in place, and to provide the technical details and other information that the licensees of distribution undertakings will require in order to prepare for implementation of these measures.

3.

Several of the measures adopted by the Commission will require amendments to the Broadcasting Distribution Regulations (the regulations). Proposed amendments will be issued soon for public comment.

 

The way of the future: digital distribution

4.

As stated in its report, the Commission has adopted an approach that takes advantage of the implementation of digital distribution to ensure increased distribution of Canadian English- and French-language specialty services.

5.

The Commission notes that a bandwidth of 750 MHz nominal can accommodate 110 analog channels. In digital mode, with the current average compression ratio of 1:8, the same transmission capacity allows a distributor to provide about 77 analog channels and 200 to 250 digital video channels. This is in addition to digital audio channels and Internet service. A bandwidth of 550 MHz nominal can accommodate 77 analog channels. On average, distributors use 70 of these channels to distribute analog signals, which leaves enough bandwidth for them to provide about 30 to 50 digital video channels, plus digital audio channels and Internet service.

6.

The Commission's approach recognizes the difference between analog technology and the various levels of digital technology, and adjusts distribution requirements to suit the technology employed by the distributor.

 

Requirements of the new policy

 

Class 1 and Class 2 distribution undertakings

7.

The following requirements will apply to licensees of Class 1 and Class 2 undertakings that distribute programming services to their subscribers in digital mode.

8.

All Class 1 and Class 2 cable distributors using high-capacity digital technology (750 MHz nominal or more) will be required to offer all Canadian English- and French-language specialty services and at least one pay television service except Category 2 digital specialty services and pay-per-view television services. Individual services need only be offered once. If a service is offered on analog, it need not also be offered on digital.

9.

All Class 1 and Class 2 cable distributors using lower-capacity digital technology (less than 750 MHz nominal) will be required to offer at least one Canadian specialty service in the minority official language in either analog or digital mode for every 10 (Canadian or non-Canadian) programming services distributed in the majority official language.

10.

To determine the minimum number of Canadian specialty services in the minority official language that a licensee would be required to distribute, one service will be credited for each licensed programming service in the minority official language that the licensee distributes. These services will include all minority official language specialty services, discretionary services, educational services distributed outside their province of origin, and optional conventional television services. The services will exclude any minority official language programming services that are required to be distributed pursuant to section 17 of the regulations or section 9.(1)(h) of the Act.

11.

For purposes of determining the total number of programming services distributed, all special programming services and exempted services will be excluded. Pay television, pay-per-view and video-on-demand services operating in either official language will be credited as individual services, as will any other English- or French-language programming services that may be distributed by the licensee more than once on either analog or digital channels.

 

Class 3 distribution undertakings

12.

In its original policy proposal (PN 2000-38), the Commission acknowledged that there are some Class 3 cable licensees who are in the process of deploying digital capacity, and whose licensed areas include significant numbers of people who have a knowledge of the minority official language. It nonetheless proposed to exempt those undertakings from its general policy concerning the distribution of broadcasting services in minority communities.

13.

After weighing the above considerations and noting the pressing demands of many Francophone and Francophile interveners at the public consultations, the Commission has amended its original proposal for Class 3 undertakings. The new approach reflects the principles set out in the report. Although the Commission expects these undertakings to meet certain requirements, the approach makes allowance for their limited size.

14.

The following requirements will apply to licensees of Class 3 undertakings that distribute programming services to their subscribers in digital mode. The Commission intends to amend the regulations and the exemption order for small cable systems proposed in Public Notice CRTC 2000-162 so that they reflect these requirements.

15.

All Class 3 cable distributors using medium-capacity or high-capacity digital technology (550 MHz or more) will be required to distribute at least one Canadian specialty service in the minority official language for every 10 (Canadian or non-Canadian) programming services distributed in the majority official language.

16.

The same approach as that described in paragraph 10 above will be used to determine the minimum number of Canadian specialty services in the minority official language that a Class 3 licensee would be required to distribute.

17.

Furthermore, a Class 3 system which is fully interconnected to another system will be required to provide the same number of Canadian services in the minority official language as the system to which it is interconnected, unless it does not have the technical capacity to do so in spite of the interconnection.

18.

The same approach as that described in paragraph 11 above will be used for purposes of determining the total number of programming services distributed on a Class 3 undertaking.

 

Exemption from requirements

19.

Where circumstances warrant, for instance where a system's digital conversion lags behind that of other systems, the Commission would be prepared, on receipt of an application and following a public process, to grant the licensee a partial exemption from the above requirements. In such cases, the Commission would expect the licensee's application to indicate how it intends to otherwise serve its subscribers who have a knowledge of the minority official language. The Commission will consider requests for partial exemptions from all cable distributors regardless of the class of undertaking concerned.

 

Analog distribution

20.

The Commission considers that, in the short term, the majority of cable subscribers will continue to receive their programming services in analog mode. Given this fact, the Commission has decided not to permit any reduction in the number of Canadian French-language services distributed on analog channels in Anglophone markets.

21.

The Commission considers that it would be inconsistent with the goals of its policy if cable distributors serving communities where English is the majority official language could shift, to digital channels, Canadian French-language services that they currently carry on analog channels, thereby reserving their analog capacity for other purposes.

22.

Accordingly, the Commission will require the licensees of all Class 1 and Class 2 cable distribution undertakings operating in Anglophone markets, as that term is described in section 18 of the regulations, to ensure that the number of French-language services distributed on analog channels as of 10 March 2000 (PN 2000-38) is not reduced. The Commission emphasizes that this requirement applies only to the number of French-language services, and not to the nature of the services. This requirement applies whether or not the licensees have commenced the transition from analog to digital distribution.

 

Distribution of public television

23.

In its report the Commission determined that all distribution undertakings should be required to distribute at least one signal of each of the CBC's English- and French-language conventional television services. The Commission notes that Class 1 and 2 distribution undertakings and DTH distribution undertakings are already required to do so under the regulations.

24.

To implement the Commission's policy regarding the conventional television signals of the CBC, the Commission intends to amend section 32 of the regulations. This section prescribes the television programming services that Class 3 distribution undertakings are required to distribute on their basic service. A similar amendment will also be made to the exemption order for small cable systems proposed in PN CRTC 2000-162.

 

Multipoint distribution systems

25.

As noted in the report, the Commission does not intend to impose additional requirements on multipoint distribution systems (MDS). The Commission still considers that their limited capacity warrants special treatment. The Commission notes that its practice is to license MDS undertakings as Class 1 cable distribution undertakings. Accordingly, an amendment to the regulations will be required to reflect this policy approach for MDS.

26.

However, the Commission reiterates the expectation contained in its report to the Governor in Council that, as technology evolves and channel capacity increases, the licensees of MDS undertakings should offer more services. Moreover, when licensing or renewing the licences of MDS undertakings, the Commission intends to address issues related to the number of specialty services distributed in the minority official language.

 

Implementation

27.

As mentioned above, the Commission intends to implement its policy through amendments to the regulations. It expects to announce proposed amendments in the near future. It further expects the public proceeding pertaining to the proposed amendments to be completed in time for them to come into effect on 1 September 2001.

 

Secretary General

 

This document is available in alternate format upon request and may also be examined at the following Internet site: www.crtc.gc.ca 

 
 
 

Appendix 3

 

Order in Council P.C. 2000-511
April 5, 2000

 

Whereas the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (hereinafter referred to as "the Commission") is responsible for regulating and supervising all aspects of the Canadian broadcasting system to implement the broadcasting policy set out in the Broadcasting Act;

 

Whereas, among other things, subsection 5(2) of that Act stipulates that the Canadian broadcasting system should be regulated and supervised in a flexible manner that

 

(a) is readily adaptable to the different characteristics of English- and French-language broadcasting and to the different conditions under which broadcasting undertakings that provide English- or French-language programming operate, and

 

(b) takes into account regional needs and concerns;

 

Whereas, among other things, the broadcasting policy for Canada set out in subsection 3(1) of that Act provides that

 

(a) English- and French-language broadcasting, while sharing common aspects, operate under different conditions and may have different requirements,

 

(b) the programming provided by the Canadian broadcasting system should be drawn from local, regional, national and international sources, and

 

(c) a range of broadcasting services in English and in French shall be extended to all Canadians as resources become available;

 

Whereas the Governor in Council recognizes the current initiative undertaken by the Commission to bring more minority official language specialty services to cable subscribers across Canada in the new digital environment;

 

Whereas the Governor in Council further considers and assigns high priority to the fact that

 

(a) broadcasting services should reflect the uniqueness of the Quebec culture and the needs and circumstances of French-language communities in other parts of Canada,

 

(b) the presence of French-language broadcasting services in the French linguistic minority communities in Canada contributes not only to the vitality and development of the Francophone communities but also responds to the needs of all Canadians who wish to attain a better understanding of both official languages,

 

(c) the provision of French-language broadcasting services to French linguistic minority communities presents particular and considerable challenges, and

 

(d) technological and other developments could contribute to meet these challenges;

 

Whereas subsection 15(1) of that Act provides that the Commission shall, on request of the Governor in Council, hold hearings or make reports on any matter within the jurisdiction of the Commission;

 

And whereas, in accordance with subsection 15(2) of that Act, the Minister of Canadian Heritage has consulted the Commission with regard to this request;

 

Therefore, Her Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of Canadian Heritage, pursuant to section 15 of the Broadcasting Act, hereby requests the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to seek comments from the public and to report at the earliest possible time, but no later than December 31, 2000, with a view to

 

(a) assessing the availability and the quality of French-language broadcasting services in the French linguistic minority communities in Canada,

 

(b) identifying any deficiencies and challenges in the above communities to the provision of French-language broadcasting services -- radio, television, specialty, pay and pay-per-view services -- comprising public, private and community elements, and the availability of French-language broadcasting services on the various broadcasting distribution systems, and

 

(c) proposing measures to encourage and facilitate access to the widest range of French-language broadcasting services possible in French linguistic minority communities and to ensure that the diversity of French-language communities across Canada is reflected in the Canadian broadcasting system.

 

 

 

Appendix 4

 

Participants in the 18 October 2000 public hearing

 

La Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne du Canada

 

Canadian Cable Television Association

 

Look Communications Inc./Craig Wireless International Inc./Image Wireless Communications Inc. (MDS licensees)

 

Canadian Cable Systems Alliance

 

La Société nationale de l'Acadie

 

L'Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada

 

L'Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada

 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

 

Télé-Québec

 

Le Groupe TVA inc.

 

Specialty and Premium Television Association

 

Impératif français

 

Radio Nord inc.

 

Le Groupe de radiodiffusion Astral inc.

 

Le Consortium de télévision Québec Canada

 

BCE Media/Bell ExpressVu

 

Dyane Adam, Commissioner of Official Languages

 

L'Association des juristes d'expression française de l'Ontario

 

La Fédération culturelle canadienne-française

 

Locations and dates of the regional consultations in 2000

 

St. Albert, Alberta - 19 September

 

Vancouver - 21 September

 

Saskatoon - 2 October

 

Toronto - 3 October

 

Cornwall - 3 October

 

St. Boniface - 4 October

 

Sudbury - 5 October

 

Windsor - 5 October

 

Moncton - 10 October

 

Halifax - 12 October

 

Vanier, Ontario - 16 October


 

Appendix 5

Coverage of la Première Chaîne

British Columbia

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

 

 

Chilliwack

CBUF-FM-1

102.1 MHz

Port Alberni

CBUF-FM-8

94.9 MHz

Dawson Creek

CBUF-FM-7

93.7 MHz

Prince George

CBUF-FM-4

95.5 MHz

Kamloops

CBUF-FM-6

96.5 MHz

Terrace

CBUF-FM-3

96.9 MHz

Kelowna

CBUF-FM-2

90.5 MHz

Vancouver

CBUF-FM

97.7 MHz

Kitimat

CBUF-FM-5

105.1 MHz

     
Alberta

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC
   

Calgary

CBRF-FM

103.9 MHz

Hinton

CHFA-4-FM

100.7 MHz

Edmonton

CHFA

680 KHz

Lethbridge

CHFA-1-FM

104.3 MHz

Falher

CHFA-7-FM

103.7 MHz

Medicine Hat

CHFA-8-FM

100.5 MHz

Fort McMurray

CHFA-6-FM

101.5 MHz

Peace River

CHFA-3-FM

92.5 MHz

Grande Prairie

CHFA-5-FM

90.5 MHz

Red Deer

CHFA-2-FM

103.5 MHz

Saskatchewan

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Bellegarde

CBKF-FM-4

91.9 MHz

Regina

CBKF-FM

97.7 MHz

Gravelbourg

CBKF-1

690 KHz

Saskatoon

CBKF-2

860 KHz

North Battleford

CBKF-FM-5

96.9 MHz

Zenon Park

CBKF-FM-3

93.5 MHz

           

Réémetteurs communautaires

     

Prince Albert

CKSF-FM

90.1 MHz

     
Manitoba

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Brandon

CKSB-8-FM

99.5 MHz

Ste Rose du Lac

CKSB-1

860 KHz

Flin Flon

CKSB-4-FM

99.9 MHz

The Pas

CKSB-3-FM

93.7 MHz

St Boniface

CKSB

1050 KHz

Thompson

CKSB-5-FM

99.9 MHz

St Lazare

CKSB-2

860 KHz

     
Ontario

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Belleville

CJBC-1-FM

94.3 MHz

Leamington

CBEF-1-FM

103.1 MHz

Blind River

CBON-6

1010 KHz

London

CJBC-4-FM

99.3 MHz

Brockville

CBOF-FM-7

102.1 MHz

Manitouwadge

CBON-FM-23

96.9 MHz

Chapleau

CBON-FM-28

91.9 MHz

Matachewan

CBON-10

1110 KHz

Cornwall

CBOF-FM-6

98.1 MHz

Mattawa

CBON-12

1090 KHz

Dryden

CKSB-6-FM

102.7 MHz

Nipigon

CBON-FM-19

97.3 MHz

Duvreuilville

CBON-FM-11

97.9 MHz

North Bay

CBON-FM-17

95.1 MHz

Elliot Lake

CBON-FM-5

101.7 MHz

Ottawa

CBOF-FM

90.7 MHz

Espanola

CBON-FM-7

94.9 MHz

Penetanguishene

CJBC-3-FM

96.5 MHz

Fort Frances

CKSB-9-FM

89.1 MHz

Peterborough

CJBC-5-FM

106.3 MHz

Geraldton

CBON-FM-22

93.7 MHz

Rolphton

CBOF-4

1400 KHz

Gogama

CBON-FM-21

104.9 MHz

Sault Ste Marie

CBON-FM-18

88.1 MHz

Haileybury

CBON-FM-2

99.7 MHz

Sudbury

CBON-FM

98.1 MHz

Hearst

CBON-FM-26

90.3 MHz

Thunder Bay

CBON-FM-20

89.3 MHz

Kapuskasing

CBON-FM-24

90.7 MHz

Timmins

CBON-FM-25

97.1 MHz

Kenora

CKSB-7-FM

93.5 MHz

Toronto

CJBC

860 KHz

Kingston

CJBC-2-FM

99.5 MHz

Wawa

CBON-FM-27

90.7 MHz

Kirkland Lake

CBON-FM-1

93.7

Windsor

CBEF

540 KHz

Kirkland Lake

CBON-1

1090

     
           

Community rebroadcasters

     

Marathon

CFMN-FM

102.3 MHz

     
New Brunswick

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Campbellton

CBAF-FM-3

91.5 MHz

Moncton

CBAF-FM

88.5 MHz

Edmundston

CBAF-FM-4

100.3 MHz

Neguac/Allardville

CBAF-FM-2

105.7 MHz

Fredericton/Saint Jean

CBAF-FM-1

102.3 MHz

Rogersville

CBAF-22

1530 KHz

Kedgwick

CBAF-20

990 KHz

St. Quentin

CBAF-21

1230 KHz

Lamèque

CBAF-FM-18

90.3 MHz

     
Nova Scotia

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Cheticamp

CBAF-FM-13

103.9 MHz

Mulgrave

CBAF-FM-11

107.5 MHz

Digby

CBAF-FM-7

104.7 MHz

New Glasgow

CBAF-FM-10

88.7 MHz

Halifax

CBAF-FM-5

92.3 MHz

Sydney

CBAF-FM-14

95.9 MHz

Margaree

CBAF-FM-12

92.3 MHz

Weymouth

CBAF-FM-8

100.9 MHz

Middleton

CBAF-FM-6

107.5 MHz

Yarmouth

CBAF-FM-9

107.3 MHz

Prince Edward Island

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Charlottetown

CBAF-FM-15

88.1 MHz

     
Newfoundland

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Churchill Falls

CBSI-FM-3

89.1 MHz

Port au Port

CBAF-FM-16

94.3 MHz

Labrador City

CBSI-FM-4

93.1 MHz

St. John's

CBAF-FM-17

105.9 MHz

Northwest Territories

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Community rebroadcasters

   

Yellowknife

VF2136

97.3 MHz

     
Yukon Territory

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Community rebroadcasters

   

Whitehorse

CFWY-FM

102.1 MHz

     
Source : CBC

 

Appendix 6

Coverage of la Chaîne Culturelle

Ontario

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Ottawa

CBOX-FM

102.5 MHz

Toronto

CJBC-FM

90.3 MHz

Sudbury

CBFX-FM

90.9 MHz

(Project approuved by the CRTC - June 2000)

New Brunswick

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

LOCATION

CALL SIGN

FREQUENCY

Rebroadcasting stations owned and operated by the CBC

   

Allardville

CBAL-FM-1

101.9 MHz

Moncton

CBAL-FM

98.3 MHz

Lamèque

CBAL-FM-2

95.3 MHz

     

Campbellton

CBAL-FM-3

88.9 MHz

     
Source: CBC

 

Appendix 7

French-language commercial originating stations and rebroadcasters outside Quebec

Identification

Status

Name

Location

Province

CIFM-FM

R

Télémédia Radio inc.

HAWKESBURY

ON

 

O

Denis Losier (SDEC)

MONCTON

NB

CHPR-FM

O

Radio Nord Communications inc.

HAWKESBURY

ON

CHYC-FM

N/a

The Haliburton Broadcasting Group inc.

SUDBURY

ON

CHYK-2

R

The Haliburton Broadcasting Group inc.

KAPUSKASING

ON

CHYK-FM

O

The Haliburton Broadcasting Group inc.

TIMMINS

ON

CHYK-FM-3

R

The Haliburton Broadcasting Group inc.

HEARST

ON

CJEM-FM

O

Radio Edmundston

EDMUNDSTON

NB

CJVA

O

Radio Acadie Ltée

CARAQUET

NB

CKLE-FM

O

Radio de La Baie Ltée

CARAQUET

NB

CKMV-FM

R

Radio Edmunston inc.

GRAND FALLS

NB

Source : CRTC
In the status column, the O  means " originating station " and the R " rebroadcasting transmitter"

 

Appendix 8

French-language originating community stations and rebroadcasters outside Quebec

Call sign

Status

Name

City

Province

CFAI-FM

O

La Coopérative des Montagnes Limitée-Radio Communautaire

EDMUNDSTON

NB

CFAI-FM-1

O

La Coopérative des Montagnes Limitée-Radio Communautaire

GRAND-SAULT

NB

CFJU-FM

O

La Radio Communautaire des Hauts-Plateaux incorporée

KEDGWICK/ST QUENTIN

NB

CFRH-FM

O

La Clé d'la Baie en Huronie, Association culturelle francop

PENETANGUISHENE

ON

CFRT-FM

O

Association Francophone d'Iqaluit

IQALUIT, NT

NT

CFWY-FM

R

Association Franco-Yukonnaise

WHITEHORSE

YT

CHFB-FM

R

L'Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta,

BONNYVILLE

AB

CHOD-FM

O

Radio Communautaire Cornwall-Alexandria inc.

CORNWALL

ON

CIFA-FM

O

Radio CLARE Association

YARMOUTH

(COMEAUVILLE)

NS

CIMS-FM

O

Coopérative Radio Restigouche ltée

BALMORAL

NB

CIMS-FM-1

R

Coopérative Radio Restigouche ltée

DALHOUSIE

NB

CINN-FM

O

Radio de L'Épinette Noire Inc.

HEARST

ON

CIVR-FM

O

L'Association Franco-Culturelle de Yellowknife

YELLOWKNIFE

NT

CJPN-FM

O

Radio Frédéricton inc.

FREDERICTON

NB

CJRM-FM

O

Radio Communautaire du Labrador inc.

LABRADOR CITY

NF

CJSE-FM

O

Radio Beauséjour inc.

SHEDIAC

NB

CKGN-FM

O

Radio Communautaire Kapnord Inc.

KAPUSKASING

ON

CKJM-FM

O

La Coopérative Radio Chéticamp Limitée

CHETICAMP

NS

CKRO-FM

O

Radio Péninsule inc.

POKEMOUCHE

NB

CKRP-FM

O

L'Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta,

FALHER

AB

CKRP-FM-1

R

L'Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta,

NAMPA

AB

CKRP-FM-2

R

L'Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta,

PEACE RIVER

AB

CKSF-FM

R

Société canadienne-française de Prince Albert inc.

PRINCE ALBERT

SK

CKXL-FM

O

Radio Communautaire du Manitoba inc.

ST-BONIFACE

MB

 

R

Radio Communautaire Kapnord Inc.

SMOOTH ROCK FALLS

ON

Source : CRTC
In the status column, the O means "originating station " and the R "rebroadcasting transmitter "

 

Appendix 9

Related documents:

Decision CRTC 95-22 - Renewal of the licence of Cable Parliamentary Channel Inc. (CPAC)

Decision CRTC 98-23 - Approval of the national radio programming network of Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada inc.

Decision CRTC 98-488 - Mandating of the national distribution of the French-language television service of the TVA network

Public Notice CRTC 1999-74 - Review of the access rules for Canadian pay and specialty services in bilingual markets - Call for comments

Public Notice CRTC 2000-1 and Decisions CRTC 2000-1 and 2000-2 - A distinctive voice for all Canadians: Renewal of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's radio and television licences

Decision CRTC 2000-3 - Licence renewal for RDI and Newsworld

Decision CRTC 2000-72 - Denial of the mandatory carriage of TFO in Quebec

Public Notice CRTC 2000-38 - Increasing the availability of minority official language specialty services to cable subscribers across Canada - Call for comments on a proposed policy

Order in Council P.C. 2000-511

Order in Council P.C. 2000-1464

Public Notice CRTC 2000-38-1 - Suspension of process with respect to minority official language specialty services

Public Notice CRTC 2000-74 - Call for comments concerning Order in Council P.C. 2000-511 and Public Notice CRTC 2000-38

Public Notice CRTC 2000-74-1 - Extension of deadline for the submission of comments with regard to Public Notice CRTC 2000-74

Public Notice CRTC 2000-74-2 - Availability of French-language specialty services outside Quebec - Additional question relating to Télé des Arts

Public Notice CRTC 2000-115 - Public consultations on French-language broadcasting services available to Francophones outside Quebec

Decision CRTC 2000-386 - Approval of Télé des Arts, a new French-language specialty television service

Public Notice CRTC 2000-162 - Proposed exemption order for small cable systems

Public Notice CRTC 2000-171 and Decisions CRTC 2000-449 to 2000-731 - Licensing of new digital pay and specialty services

Public Notices CRTC 2000-173 and 2000-173-1 - Call for comments to amend the lists of eligible satellite services through the inclusion of additional non-Canadian services eligible for distribution on a digital basis only